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Section: File Formats (5)
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ms - Text formatting macros  


nroff -ms [options] file...



This package of nroff macro definitions provides a formatting facility for various styles of articles, theses, and books. When producing 2-column output on a terminal or lineprinter, or when reverse line motions are needed, filter the output through col(1). All external -ms macros are defined in the following section. Many nroff requests are unsafe in conjunction with this package. However, the first four requests in the list that follows can be used with impunity after initialization, and the last two may be used even before initialization: Begin new page Break output line Insert n spacing lines Center next n lines Line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space No alignment of right margin

Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed; for example, \fIword\fR italicize word. Output of the tbl and neqn preprocessors for equations and tables ris acceptable as input.


Macro Name Initial Value Break/ResetExplanation

.AB x-y Begin abstract; if x =no, do not label abstract.
.AE-yEnd abstract.
.AI-yAuthor's institution.
.AM-n Better accent mark definitions.
.AU-yAuthor's name.
.B x-n Embolden x; if no x, switch to boldface.
.B1-y Begin text to be enclosed in a box.
.B2-y End boxed text and print it.
.BTdaten Bottom title, printed at foot of page.
.BX x-n Print word x in a box.
.CMif tnCut mark between pages.
.CT-y/y Chapter title: page number moved to CF (TM only).
.DA xif nn Force date x at bottom of page; today if no x.
.DE-y End display (unfilled text) of any kind.
.DS x yIy Begin display with keep; x =I,L,C,B; y =indent.
.ID y8n,.5iy Indented display with no keep; y =indent.
.LD-yLeft display with no keep.
.CD-y Centered display with no keep.
.BD-y Block display; center entire block.
.EF x-n Even page footer x (3 part, as for .tl).
.EH x-n Even page header x (3 part, as for .tl).
.EN-y End displayed equation produced by *neqn.
.EQ x y-y Break out equation; x =L,I,C; y =equation number.
.FE-n End footnote to be placed at bottom of page.
.FP-n Numbered footnote paragraph; may be redefined.
.FS x-n Start footnote; x is optional footnote label.
.HDundefn Optional page header below header margin.
.I x-n Italicize x; if no x, switch to italics.
.IP x y-y/y Indented paragraph, with hanging tag x; y= indent.
.IX x y-y Index words x, y and so on (up to five levels).
.KE-nEnd keep of any kind.
.KF-n Begin floating keep; text fills remainder of page.
.KS-y Begin keep; unit kept together on a single page.
.LG-n Larger; increase point size by 2.
.LP-y/y Left (block) paragraph.
.MC x-y/y Multiple columns; x =column width.
.ND xif tn No date in page footer; x is date on cover.
.NH x y-y/y Numbered header; x =level, x =0 resets, x =S sets to y.
.NL10pn Set point size back to normal.
.OF x-n Odd page footer x (3 part, as for .tl).
.OH x-n Odd page header x (3 part, as for .tl).
.P1if TMn Print header on first page.
.PP-y/y Paragraph with first line indented.
.PT- % -n Page title, printed at head of page.
.PX x-y Print index (table of contents); x =no, suppresses title.
.QP-y/y Quote paragraph (indented and shorter).
.RonnReturn to Roman font.
.RE5ny/y Retreat: end level of relative indentation.
.RP x-n Released paper format; x =no, stops title on first page.
.RS5ny/y Right shift: start level of relative indentation.
.SH-y/y Section header, in bold-face.
.SM-n Smaller; decrease point size by 2.
.TA8n,5nn Set tabs to 8n 16n ... (nroff) 5n 10n ... (*roff).
.TC x-y Print table of contents at end; x =no, suppresses title.
.TE-y End of table processed by tbl.
.TH-y End multipage header of table.
.TL-y Title in boldface and two points larger.
.TMoffnUC Berkeley thesis mode.
.TS x-y/y Begin table; if x =H, table has multipage header.
.UL x-n Underline x, even in *roff.
.UX x-n UNIX; trademark message first time; x appended.
.XA x y-y Another index entry; x =page or no for none; y =indent.
.XE-y End index entry (or series of .IX entries).
.XP-y/y Paragraph with first line exdented, others indented.
.XS x y-y Begin index entry; x =page or no for none; y =indent.
.1Cony/y One-column format, on a new page.
.2C-y/yBegin two-column format.
.]--n Beginning of refer reference.
.[0-n End of unclassifiable type of reference.
.[N-n N= 1:journal-article, 2:book, 3:book-article, 4:report.



Formatting distances can be controlled in -ms by means of built-in number registers. For example, this sets the line length to 6.5 inches:

 .nr  LL  6.5i

Here is a table of number registers and their default values:

Register NameControlsEffectsDefault

PSPoint sizeparagraph10
VSVertical spacingparagraph12
LLLine lengthparagraph6i
LTTitle lengthnext pagesame as LL
FLFootnote lengthnext .FS5.5i
PDParagraph distanceparagraph1v (if n), .3v (if t)
DDDisplay distancedisplays1v (if n), .5v (if t)
PIParagraph indentparagraph5n
QIQuote indentnext .QP5n
FIFootnote indentnext .FS2n
POPage offsetnext page0 (if n), ~1i (if t)
HMHeader marginnext page1i
FMFooter marginnext page 1i
FFFootnote formatnext .FS0 (1, 2, 3 available)

When resetting these values, make sure to specify the appropriate units. Setting the line length to 7, for example, results in output with one character per line. Setting FF to 1 suppresses footnote superscripting; setting it to 2 also suppresses indentation of the first line; and setting it to 3 produces an .IP-like footnote paragraph.

Here is a list of string registers available in -ms; they can be used anywhere in the text:

NameString's Function

\*Q Quote (" in nroff, `` in *roff )
\*U Unquote (" in nroff, '' in *roff )
\*- Dash (-- in nroff, -- in *roff )
\*(MOMonth (month of the year)
\*(DYDay (current date)
\**Automatically numbered footnote
\*'Acute accent (before letter)
\*`Grave accent (before letter)
\*^Circumflex (before letter)
\*,Cedilla (before letter)
\*:Umlaut (before letter)
\*~Tilde (before letter)

When using the extended accent mark definitions available with .AM, these strings should come after, rather than before, the letter to be accented.


Floating keeps and regular keeps are diverted to the same space, so they cannot be mixed together with predictable results.


The -ms macro package source file Files that are hardlinked to ???.s files Supplemental -ms macros


col(1), neqn(1), nroff(1), tbl(1)




This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 02:43:07 GMT, October 02, 2010