euro, Euro, EUR - Euro currency sign
The Euro currency is the new currency for European countries belonging to the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Euro currency is scheduled for introduction on January 1, 1999. By the end of 2002, the new currency should completely replace local currencies for EMU member countries.
The Euro currency has its own euro currency sign, which looks like an equal sign (=) superimposed on the capital letter C. Most character sets do not support this sign. Note that the string EUR can be prepended before monetary amounts in Euro currency in the same way USD is sometimes used to specify U. S. dollars in certain kinds of financial reports. However, for the euro character itself, the string C= is the closest representation that most of the current character sets support and this approximation is not appropriate for some applications.
Several character sets have been updated or invented to include the euro character. Among these are: Unicode Version 2.1 ISO/IEC 8859-15 (Latin-9) Certain DOS and Microsoft code pages
The following table specifies the encoding position of the euro character in each of these character sets:
|Character Set||Euro Position|
|Unicode Version 2.1||0x20AC|
|ISO/IEC 8859-15 (Latin-9)||0xA4|
|CP1250 (Windows Latin-2)||0x80|
|CP1251 (Windows Cyrillic)||0x88|
|CP1252 (Windows Latin-1)||0x80|
|CP1253 (Windows Greek)||0x80|
|CP1254 (Windows Turkish)||0x80|
|CP1255 (Windows Hebrew)||0x80|
|CP1256 (Windows Arabic)||0x80|
|CP1257 (Windows Baltic)||0x80|
|CP1258 (Windows Vietnamese)||0x80|
|CP874 (DOS Thai)||0x80|
Tru64 UNIX locales that support the euro character use the Unicode character set in UTF-8 file format with UCS-4 process code. The following table lists these locales and the languages (countries) that they support:
|en_EU.UTF-8@euro||See description following table.|
|en_GB.UTF-8||English (Great Britain)|
|en_US.UTF-8, en_US.UTF-8@euro||English (U.S.)|
|nl_NL.UTF-8||Dutch (The Netherlands)|
CDE users can select .UTF-8 locales by using the Language menu at session login time and selecting languages whose names are followed by ``(Unicode).'' Alternatively, users can set the LANG environment variable to one of these locale names in a terminal emulation window. In this case, the locale setting applies to child applications subsequently invoked from that window.
The @euro locale variants provide LC_MONETARY definitions for the euro character and are intended for assignment specifically to the LC_MONETARY locale variable. In these locales, the local currency sign is defined to be the euro character and the international currency sign is defined to be EUR. The en_US.UTF-8@euro locale defines the radix point to be the period (.) and the thousands separator to be the comma (,). The en_EU.UTF-8@euro locale reverses these character assignments; the radix point is a comma(,) and the thousands separator is a period (.). Because en_EU.UTF-8@euro is intended for assignment only to LC_MONETARY, the locale is useful for languages other than English. For example, support for the euro character in Germany can be obtained by setting LANG to de_DE.UTF-8 and LC_MONETARY to en_EU.UTF-8@euro.
The LC_ALL environment variable overrides settings of all locale category variables, such as LC_MONETARY. When setting LC_MONETARY to be different from settings for the remainder of locale categories, be sure to use the LANG, not the LC_ALL, environment variable.
Existing applications that need to support the euro currency symbol
may need modification to use UTF-8 as file code. Because UTF-8 is basically
a multibyte character encoding format, programmers cannot assume that one
character is equal to one byte of input data. Therefore, their applications
must use functions that handle multibyte and wide-character data rather than
older functions that operate only on single-byte characters. For more information
on this topic, see
Writing Software for the International Market. For more information about UTF-8 and
UCS-4 encoding formats, see
Codeset converters are available to convert data between encoding formats that support the euro character. Codeset converters can convert file data between the following formats: Unicode encoding formats and the 874 and 125* codepages Unicode encoding formats and ISO 8859-15 (Latin-9)
For more information about these codeset converters, see
Depending on language and keyboard style, you can use particular key sequences to enter the euro character.
For any language and a keyboard that supports the Compose-character entry method, you can use the Compose key input method to enter the euro character. For Compose-key input, you press and release certain keys in sequence, starting with the key defined as the Compose key. For the euro character, use one of the following two sequences: Compose C = Compose = C
The following table lists more efficient key sequences that are supported for specific languages and keyboard styles. Note that the key sequences in the table are supported only by xkb format keymaps (which are the default for CDE users). When using these key sequences, you hold down the first key while pressing the other.
|Keymap Description||VT-Style Keyboard||PC-Style Keyboard|
|Belgian||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Czech||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Danish||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Dutch||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|English Canadian||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Finnish||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Flemish||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|French||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|French Canadian||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Swiss French||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|German||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Swiss German||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Hungarian||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Italian||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Lithuanian||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Norwegian||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Polish||Left Compose+U||Right Alt+u|
|Serb/Croat/Slovene||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Slovak||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Spanish||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Swedish||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|Turkish||Left Compose+E||Right Alt+E|
|United Kingdom||Left Compose+4||Right Alt+4|
For more information about keyboards, keymaps, and character-entry methods,
The operating system does not provide native Unicode fonts that include
glyphs for the euro character. However, the character is supported by a set
of Latin-9 fonts. The X font library has been extended to combine a number
of fonts together to provide logical Unicode fonts for applications to use.
The names of these logical fonts end with
can use the
utility to find out if these fonts
are installed on your system.
Printing of file data in UTF-8 format is supported by a generic PostScript
print filter. See
for information on how to configure this print filter.
Commands: xlsfonts(1X), wwpsof(8)
Others: code_page(5), i18n_intro(5), i18n_printing(5), iconv_intro(5), keyboard(5), l10n_intro(5), Unicode(5)
Writing Software for the International Market