Japanese, japanese - Introduction to Japanese language support
There are two national standards that specify the Japanese character
sets used for information interchange. The JIS X0201 standard specifies a
single-byte character set that consists of Roman letters and Katakana characters.
The JIS X0208 standard specifies a primary set of Japanese ideographic characters.
The operating system supports both standards with coded character sets (codesets),
locales, device, and other kinds of system files.
There are several codesets available to support Japanese. The following list describes both the codesets and the strings that represent the codesets in the names of locales, codeset converters, or both: See deckanji(5) for more information about the DEC Kanji codeset. See eucJP(5) for more information about the Japanese EUC codeset. See sdeckanji(5) for more information about the Super DEC Kanji codeset. The Shift JIS encoding format is identical to the Microsoft code-page (cp932) format used on PC systems. Therefore, you can use codeset converters whose names contain SJIS to convert data to and from cp932 format.
Terminal Code Conversion
The following list specifies Japanese locales for Japan and the codesets they support:
ja_JP.deckanji, for DEC Kanji ja_JP.eucJP, for Japanese EUC ja_JP.sdeckanji, for Super DEC Kanji ja_JP.SJIS, for Shift JIS
The ja_JP.deckanji@ucs4 and ja_JP.SJIS@ucs4 locale variants also exist for applications that need to convert file data in deckanji and SJIS format to UCS-4 process code to perform certain character-classification operations.
You can use the locale command (see locale(1)) to display the names of locales installed on your system. See i18n_intro(5) for information on setting locale from the operating system command line.
In the Common Desktop Environment (CDE), you also need to set the session
language. To do this, use the Language menu that is accessed from the Options
button of the Login window.
The Japanese locales (including the @ucs4 variants) define the following properties (or classes) for characters: Characters for which the isascii() function returns a nonzero (TRUE) value English-language characters as defined by the System V Multi-National Language Specification (MNLS) User-defined and vendor-defined characters (UDCs and VDCs) Ideographic characters as defined by the System V Multi-National Language Specification (MNLS) Digit characters as defined by JIS X0208 Katakana characters and the voiced, semivoiced, and prolonged sound marks as defined by JIS X0201 Hiragana characters as defined by JIS X0208 All printable characters as defined by JIS X0201 All printable, right-hand side characters as defined by JIS X0201 All printable characters as defined by JIS X0208 All printable characters as defined by JIS X012 Kanji characters as defined by JIS X0208 and JIS X0212, the Kanji iteration mark as defined in JIS X 0208, and the Han-numeral zero as defined by JIS X0208 Katakana characters as defined by JIS X0201 and JIS X0208; the voiced, semivoiced, and prolonged sound marks as defined by JIS X0208 and JIS X0201; the Katakana iteration marks as defined by JIS X0208 Kana bracket characters as defined by JIS X0201 and the parentheses characters as defined by JIS X0208 The space character as defined by JIS X0208 Line-drawing characters as defined by JIS X0208 Numbers as defined by the System V Multi-National Language Specification (MNLS) Parentheses and other paired symbols as defined by JIS X0201 and JIS X0208 Phonograms as defined by the System V Multi-National Language Specification (MNLS) Special characters as defined by the System V Multi-National Language Specification (MNLS) User-defined characters Vendor-defined characters
These properties supplement the ones specified by the XSH standard.
for general information about
how characters are assigned properties in locales and how applications test
characters for supplemental properties.
The operating system supports the following Japanese keyboards: A Japanese version of the LK201 keyboard. A Japanese version of the LK401 keyboard. A Japanese version of the LK401 keyboard. This model provides JIS layout and special keys for Japanese input methods. A Japanese version of the LK401 keyboard. This model provides ANSI layout and special keys for Japanese input methods. A Japanese version of the LK421 keyboard. This model does not have special keys for Japanese input methods. A Japanese version of the LK421 keyboard. This model provides UNIX layout and special keys for Japanese input methods. A Japanese version of the LK97W keyboard. This model has special keys for Japanese input methods. A Japanese version of the PC keyboard. This model has special keys for Japanese input methods.
For the Motif environment, the operating system provides the dxjim input server to support Japanese input methods. For a CDE session, this input server is started automatically if your session language is set to Japanese at login time. Refer to the dxjim(1X) reference page for more information about this input server and how to start it from the command line.
There are two main mechanisms for entering Japanese characters: Kana input, for entering Kana characters
In the Motif environment, you must load a Japanese key mapping table (keymap) that is appropriate for your keyboard. See keyboard(5) for information on loading a keymap.
All the Japanese keyboards and keymaps support locking-shift mode switching. In other words, you can enter English characters in the Mode Switch Off state and Kana characters in the Mode Switch On state. The keys used to toggle the input mode differ according to whether you are using a Japanese VT terminal or, in the Motif environment, the keymap that has been loaded. For Japanese VT terminals, press the Compose key In the Motif environment: For LK201-J* keymaps, hold down the Compose key and press the Space bar For other Japanese keymaps, press the Compose, or Comp, key if there is one. Otherwise, press the right Ctrl key.
The operating system supports the VT282-J, VT382-J, and VT383-J terminals
X or Motif applications require non-ASCII fonts to display Japanese characters. This means that the font path must be set appropriately before starting an application that displays Japanese characters. An application can find Japanese fonts in either of the following directories: /usr/i18n/lib/X11/fonts/decwin/75dpi, for low resolution display /usr/i18n/lib/X11/fonts/decwin/100dpi, for high resolution display
For applications running under CDE, Japanese screen fonts are found as long as they are installed on the system or made available through a remote font server. In other environments, you may need to use the following command to check the font path before running a Japanese application: % xset q
If one of the directories in the preceding list is not in the font path, the following example shows how to add the directory. You can substitute 100dp for 75dpi if you want high resolution display. % xset +fp /usr/i18n/lib/X11/decwin/75dpi/ % xset fp rehash
The operating system supports the following Japanese printers. The associated print filter is noted in parentheses following the printer name. Japanese dot-matrix printers
PostScript fonts for Japanese printers are printer resident. To print Japanese text on generic PostScript printers, you can customize a print filter to convert Japanese bitmap fonts to PostScript font encoding. Refer to wwpsof(8) for more information.
for a general discussion of printer support options.
Commands: asort(1), locale(1), lp(1), lpr(1), dxjim(1X), xset(1X), lpd(8), lprsetup(8)
Others: code_page(5), deckanji(5), eucJP(5), i18n_intro(5), i18n_printing(5), iconv_intro(5), iso2022jp(5), jiskanji(5), keyboard(5), l10n_intro(5), sdeckanji(5), shiftjis(5), Unicode(5)