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semid_ds - Defines a semaphore set  


#include <sys/sem.h>

struct semid_ds{        struct ipc_perm sem_perm;
       struct sem *sem_base;
       u_short sem_nsems;
       time_t sem_otime;
       time_t sem_ctime;


The semid_ds structure defines a semaphore set associated with a semaphore ID. There is one semaphore set per semaphore ID.

A semaphore set is implemented as an array of sem_nsems semaphores, with sem_base pointing to the first semaphore in the set.

The IPC permissions for a semaphore set are implemented in a separate, but associated, ipc_perm structure.

A semaphore set is created indirectly via the semget() call. If semget() is called with a non-existent semaphore ID, the kernel allocates a new semid_ds structure, initializes it, and returns the semaphore ID that is to be associated with the semaphore set.  


The ipc_perm structure that defines permissions for semaphore operations. See NOTES. A pointer to the first semaphore in the set. Individual semaphores are defined using the sem structure. See NOTES. The number of semaphores in the set. Each semaphore in the set is referenced by a unique integer. A semaphore number is sometimes referred to as sem_num, but this is not a field carried in any of the relevant data structures. Semaphore numbers run sequentially from zero to sem_nsems-1. The time of the last semop() operation on the set. The time of the last semctl() operation that changed a semaphore in the set.  


The sem_perm field identifies the associated ipc_perm structure that defines the permissions for operations on the semaphore set. The ipc_perm structure (from the sys/ipc.h header file) is shown here.

struct ipc_perm {
        ushort    uid;        /* owner's user id            */
        ushort    gid;        /* owner's group id           */
        ushort    cuid;       /* creator's user id          */
        ushort    cgid;       /* creator's group id         */
        ushort    mode;       /* access modes               */
        ushort    seq;        /* slot usage sequence number */
        key_t     key;        /* key                        */ };

The mode field is a 9-bit field that contains the permissions for semaphore operations. The first three bits identify owner permissions; the second three bits identify group permissions; and the last three bits identify other permissions. In each group, the first bit indicates read permission; the second bit indicates write permission; and the third bit is not used.

Individual semaphores are implemented with the sem structure. The sem structure (from the sys/sem.h header file) is shown here:

struct sem {         u_short semval;
        short sempid;
        u_short semncnt;
        u_short semzcnt;

The sem fields are defined as follows: A nonnegative integer that is the current value of the semaphore. The process ID of the last process to perform an operation on the semaphore.

The number of processes that are currently suspended while waiting for an operation to increment the current semval value. The number of processes that are currently suspended while waiting for semval to go to zero.


Functions: semctl(2), semget(2), semop(2) delim off




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Time: 02:40:05 GMT, October 02, 2010