tail - Writes a file to standard output, beginning at a specified point
tail [-f|-r] [-c number| -n number][file]
tail [+number| -number][unit] [-f|-r] [file]
The tail command writes the named file (standard input by default) to standard output, beginning at a point you specify.
The second synopsis form of this command is obsolete, and support may
be withdrawn at any time.
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards as follows:
tail: XPG4, XPG4-UNIX
Refer to the
reference page for more information
about industry standards and associated tags.
Displays the remainder of the file from the starting point number where number is measured in bytes. The sign of number affects the location in the file at which to begin the copying: Copying begins relative to the beginning of the file. Copying begins relative to the end of the file. Copying begins relative to the end of the file.
In the non-obsolescent form, if you do not specify either
is the default.
If you do not specify -f, -r, -number, or +number, tail begins reading 10 lines before the end of the file. The default starting point is - (end of input), l (lines) is the default unit, and 10 is the default number.
By specifying +, you can direct tail to read from the beginning of the file. By specifying a number or a unit, or both, you can change the point at which tail begins reading.
[Compaq] The unit argument can specify lines, blocks, or characters. The tail command can begin reading number (10 by default) units from either the end or the beginning of the file.
[Compaq] The block size is either 512 bytes or 1 kilobyte.
When the input is a text file containing mulktibyte characters, use
option cautiously since the output produced may not
start on a character boundary.
The following exit values are returned:
An error occurred.
To display the last 10 lines of a file named notes, enter: tail notes To specify how far from the end to start, enter: tail -20 notes
The following environment variables affect the execution of
Provides a default value for the internationalization variables
that are unset or null. If
is unset or null, the corresponding value from the default locale is used.
If any of the internationalization variables contain an invalid setting, the
utility behaves as if none of the variables had been defined.
If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of
all the other internationalization variables.
Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences
of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to
mulktibyte characters in arguments and input files).
Determines the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic
messages written to standard error.
Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing
Commands: cat(1), head(1), more(1), page(1), pg(1)