c89 - Standard C Compiler
c89 [-c] [-D name[=value]]... [-E] [-g] [-I directory]... [-L directory]... [-o outfile] [-O] [-s] [-U name]... file...
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards as follows:
c89: XPG4, XPG4-UNIX
Refer to the
reference page for more information
about industry standards and associated tags.
The following options are defined by the XPG4-UNIX standard. However,
the compiler can also recognize the options defined in
option by default (for ANSI
C standards checking). To check for full compliance to XPG4-UNIX, you
must also specify
for more information.
Suppress the loading phase of the compilation and force an
object file to be produced.
Produce symbol table information for full symbolic debugging
and suppress optimizations that limit full symbolic debugging. Symbol types
and stack-frame variables names are available. Global optimizations are not
performed. Instruction scheduling does not span source line boundaries. Trap
instructions are inserted to ensure that exceptions are reported on the source
lines that caused them to be generated.
Remove the symbol table and relocation bits to save space
(this impairs the usefulness of the debuggers). This information can also
be removed by
Name the final output file
If this option is used, the file
as if with a
statement. If no definition is given, the name is defined
Run only the C macro preprocessor on the files and send the
result to the standard output device.
files whose names
do not begin with / are always sought first in the directory of the
argument, then in directories specified in
options, and finally in the standard directory,
to the list of directories
that are searched for libraries. Directories specified with
are searched before the standard directories.
Enable global optimization, including code motion, strength
reduction and test replacement, split lifetime analysis, and code scheduling.
Remove any definition of
defined with the
Compiles source code in conformance with the XPG4-UNIX standard.
The c89 command can process one or more of the following types of ``file'' arguments: Files whose names end with .c are assumed to be C source programs. They are compiled, and each object program is left in the file whose name consists of the last component of the source with .o substituted for .c. The .o file is deleted only when a single source program is compiled and linked in a single step. Files whose names end with .a are assumed to be libraries of object files. These files are passed directly to the linker. Files whose names end with .o are assumed to be object files produced by a previous c89 command. These files are also passed directly to the linker.
The c89 command can take other types of file arguments, although they are not part of the standard specification. See cc(1) for a description of the other file types.
When the compiler is invoked, it defines the following C preprocessor macros that identify the language of the input files and the environments in which the code can run:
__LANGUAGE_C__ __unix__ __osf__ __alpha _SYSTYPE_BSD LANGUAGE_ASSEMBLY __LANGUAGE_ASSEMBLY__
You can reference these macros in
to isolate code that applies to a particular language or environment.
The diagnostics produced by
are intended to be
self-explanatory. Occasional messages may be produced by the assembler or
Compiles helloworld.c and produces the executable file helloworld.c c89 -o helloworld helloworld.c Compiles helloworld.c and creates the object file helloworld.o. c89 -c helloworld.c Compiles a.c and b.c, producing a.o and b.o. The object files main.o, a.o, and b.o are then linked together, using the library /a/b/c/libQ.a to resolve any references in a.o, and /a/b/c/libp.a to resolve any references in b.o. The executable program is placed in the file a.out. Only one -L option is needed because libQ.a and libp.a reside in the same directory. c89 -L /a/b/c main.o a.c -l Q b.c -l p
The following environment variables affect compiler operation: Provides a default value for locale variables that are not set. If any of these variables contains an invalid setting, the compiler behaves as if none were set. If set to a non-empty string, this variable overrides values in all locale variables, including LANG. Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte characters instead of multi-byte characters in arguments and input files). Determines the locale used for diagnostic messages. Determines the locale of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES. Provides a pathname that overrides the default directory for temporary files, if any.
For more information on these environment variables, see
Compiler error messages in English
Compiler configuration file (optional)
C front end
C macro preprocessor
DEC C compiler
Binary ucode and symbol table joiner
Binary ucode and symbol table splitter
Optional global ucode optimizer
Symbolic to binary assembly language translator
Binary assembly language assembler and reorganizer
Startup for profiling
Standard library, see
Level 1 profiling library
Standard directory for
Binary-to-symbolic ucode translator
Symbolic-to-binary ucode translator
File produced for analysis by
File produced for analysis by
Commands: as(1), cc(1), ld(1)
Other: i18n_intro(5), l10n_intro(5), standards(5)
Guides: ANSI X3.159-1989
B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Ritchie, The C Programming Language
B. W. Kernighan, Programming in C -- a tutorial
D. M. Ritchie, C Reference Manual
Assembly Language Programmer's Guide
DEC C Language Reference Manual