Content-type: text/html Man page of mm


Section: Standards, Environments, and Macros (5)
Updated: 1 Jan 1997
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mm - text formatting (memorandum) macros  


nroff -mm [options] filename...

troff -mm [options] filename...  


This package of nroff(1) and troff(1) macro definitions provides a formatting facility for various styles of articles, theses, and books. When producing 2-column output on a terminal or lineprinter, or when reverse line motions are needed, filter the output through col(1). All external -mm macros are defined below.

Note: this -mm macro package is an extended version written at Berkeley and is a superset of the standard -mm macro packages as supplied by Bell Labs. Some of the Bell Labs macros have been removed; for instance, it is assumed that the user has little interest in producing headers stating that the memo was generated at Whippany Labs.

Many nroff and troff requests are unsafe in conjunction with this package. However, the first four requests below may be used with impunity after initialization, and the last two may be used even before initialization:

.bp begin new page

.br break output line

.spn insert n spacing lines

.cen center next n lines

.lsn line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space

.na no alignment of right margin

Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed; for example, \fIword\fR will italicize word. Output of the tbl(1), eqn(1) and refer(1) preprocessors for equations, tables, and references is acceptable as input.  


Here is a table of macros.

Macro NameInitial ValueBreak? Reset?Explanation
.1Cony,yone column format on a new page
.2C [ l ]-y,ytwo column format l=line length
.AE-yend abstract
.AL [ t ] [ i ] [ s ]t=1;i=.Li;s=0y Start automatic list type t=[1,A,a,I,i] 1=arabic numbers; A=uppercase letters a=lowercase letters; I=uppercase Roman numerals; i=lowercase Roman numerals indentation i; separation s
.AS m [ n ]n=0ybegin abstract
.AU-yauthor's name
.AV x-y signature and date line of verifier x
.B x-n embolden x; if no x, switch to boldface
.BE-yend block text
.BI x y-nembolden x and underline y
.BL-ybullet list
.BR x y-nembolden x and use Roman font for y
.BS-nstart block text
.CN-ysame as .DE (nroff)
.CS-ycover sheet
.CW-nsame as .DS I (nroff)
.DE-yend display
.DF [ p ] [ f ] [ rp ]p=L;f=Ny start floating display; position p=[L,C,CB] L=left; I=indent; C=center; CB=center block fill f=[N,Y]; right position rp (fill only)
.DL [ i ] [ s ]-ystart dash list
.DS [ p ] [ f ] [ rp ]p=L;f=Ny begin static display (see .DF for argument descriptions)
.EC x [ n ]n=1y equation title; equation x; number n
.EF x-n even footer appears at the bottom of even-numbered pages; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.EH x-n even header appears at the top of even-numbered pages; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.EN-y end displayed equation produced by eqn
.EQ-ybreak out equation produced by eqn
.EX x [ n ]n=1yexhibit title; exhibit x
number n
.FD [ f ] [ r ]f=10;r=1n set footnote style format f=[0-11]; renumber r=[0,1]
.FE-yend footnote
.FG x [ n ]n=1yfigure title; figure x; number n
.FS-nstart footnote
.H l [ t ]-y produce numbered heading level l=[1-7]; title t
.HU t-yproduce unnumbered heading; title t
.I x-nunderline x
.IB x y-nunderline x and embolden y
.IR x y-nunderline x and use Roman font on y
.LE [ s ]s=0yend list; separation s
.LI [ m ] [ p ]-ystart new list item; mark m
prefix p (mark only)
.ML m [ i ] [ s ]s=0y start marked list; mark m indentation i; separation s=[0,1]
.MT xymemo title; title x
.ND xn no date in page footer; x is date on cover
.NE-yend block text
.NS-ystart block text
.OF x-n odd footer appears at the bottom of odd-numbered pages; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.OF x-n odd header appears at the top of odd-numbered pages; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.OP-y skip to the top of an odd-number page
.P [ t ]t=0y,y begin paragraph; t=[0,1] 0=justified; 1=indented
.PF x-n page footer appears at the bottom of every page; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.PH x-n page header appears at the top of every page; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.Ronnreturn to Roman font
.RB x y-nuse Roman
on x and embolden y
.RI x y-nuse Roman
on x and underline y
.RP x-y,y released paper format ? x=no stops title on first
.RS5ny,y right shift: start level of relative indentation
.S m n-n set character point size & vertical space character point size m; vertical space n
.SA xx=1njustification; x=[0,1]
.SK x-yskip x pages
.SM -nsmaller; decrease point size by 2
.SP [ x ]-y leave x blank lines
.TB x [ n ]n=1ytable title; table x; number n
.TC-y print table of contents (put at end of input file)
.TE-yend of table processed by tbl
.TH-yend multi-page header of table
.TL-n title in boldface and two points larger
.TM-nUC Berkeley thesis mode
.TP iyy i=p.i. Begin indented paragraph, with the tag given on the next text line. Set prevailing indent to i.
.TS x-y,y begin table; if x=H table has multi-page header
.TY -ydisplay centered title CONTENTS
.VL i [ m ] [ s ]m=0;s=0y start variable-item list; indentation i mark-indentation m; separation s



Formatting distances can be controlled in -mm by means of built-in number registers. For example, this sets the line length to 6.5 inches:

.nr  LL  6.5i

Here is a table of number registers and their default values:

NameRegister ControlsTakes EffectDefault
Clcontents leveltable of contents2
Dedisplay ejectdisplay0
Dfdisplay floatingdisplay5
Dsdisplay spacingdisplay1v
Hbheading breakheading2
Hcheading centeringheading0
Hiheading indentheading1
Hiheading spacingheading1
Huheading unnumberedheading2
Lilist indentationlist
6 (nroff)
5 (troff)
Lslist spacinglist6
Piparagraph indentparagraph5
Ptparagraph typeparagraph1
Sistatic indentdisplay
5 (nroff)
3 (troff)

When resetting these values, make sure to specify the appropriate units. Setting the line length to 7, for example, will result in output with one character per line. Setting Pi to 0 suppresses paragraph indentation

Here is a list of string registers available in -mm; they may be used anywhere in the text:

NameString's Function
\*Q quote (" in nroff, `` in troff )
\*U unquote (" in nroff, '' in troff )
\*- dash (-- in nroff, --- in troff )
\*(MOmonth (month of the year)
\*(DYday (current date)
\**automatically numbered footnote
\*'acute accent (before letter)
\*`grave accent (before letter)
\*^circumflex (before letter)
\*,cedilla (before letter)
\*:umlaut (before letter)
\*~tilde (before letter)
\(BUbullet item
\(DTdate (month day, yr)
\(EM em dash


\(Tmtrademark character (TM)

When using the extended accent mark definitions available with .AM, these strings should come after, rather than before, the letter to be accented.  



/usr/share/lib/tmac/mm.[nt] nroff and troff definitions of mm.



See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:




col(1), eqn(1), nroff(1), refer(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(5)  


Floating keeps and regular keeps are diverted to the same space, so they cannot be mixed together with predictable results.




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Time: 02:39:48 GMT, October 02, 2010