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Man page of eqn
eqn
Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: 12 Jul 2002
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NAME
eqn, neqn, checkeq  typeset mathematics test
SYNOPSIS
eqn [d xy] [ f n] [p n] [ s n] [file]...
neqn [file]...
checkeq [file]...
DESCRIPTION
eqn and neqn are language processors
to assist in describing equations. eqn is a preprocessor
for troff(1) and is intended
for devices that can print troff's output. neqn is
a preprocessor for nroff(1) and
is intended for use with terminals. Usage is almost always:
example% eqn file ...  troff
example% neqn file ...  nroff
If no files are specified, eqn and neqn read from the standard input. A line beginning with .EQ marks
the start of an equation. The end of an equation is marked by a line beginning
with .EN. Neither of these lines is altered, so they may
be defined in macro packages to get centering, numbering, and so on. It is
also possible to set two characters as ``delimiters''; subsequent text between
delimiters is also treated as eqn input.
checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters
and .EQ/.EN pairs.
OPTIONS
The following options are supported:
dxy

Sets equation delimiters set to characters x and y with the commandline argument. The more common way to do
this is with delim xy between .EQ and .EN. The left and right delimiters may
be identical. Delimiters are turned off by delim off appearing
in the text. All text that is neither between delimiters nor between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.
fn

Changes font to n globally in the
document. The font can also be changed globally in the body of the document
by using the gfont n directive,
where n is the font specification.
pn

Reduces subscripts and superscripts by n point
sizes from the previous size. In the absence of the p option,
subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from the previous
size.
sn

Changes point size to n globally
in the document. The point size can also be changed globally in the body of
the document by using the gsize n directive,
where n is the point size.
OPERANDS
The following operands are supported:
file

The nroff or troff file processed by eqn or neqn.
EQN LANGUAGE
The nroff version of this description depicts the output of neqn to
the terminal screen exactly as neqn is able to display
it. To see an accurate depiction of the output, view the printed version of
this page.
Tokens within eqn are separated by braces, double
quotes, tildes, circumflexes, SPACE, TAB,
or NEWLINE characters. Braces {} are used for grouping. Generally
speaking, anywhere a single character like x could
appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces may be used instead.
A tilde (~) represents a full SPACE in
the output; a circumflex (^) half as much.
Subscripts and superscripts:

These are produced with the keywords sub and sup.
x sub i

makes
delim $$
$x sub i$
a sub i sup 2

produces
delim $$
$a sub i sup 2$
e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}

gives e^(x^2+y^2)
Fractions:

Fractions are made with over.
a over b

yields
delim $$
$a over b$
Square Roots:

These are made with sqrt
1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}

results in
delim $$
$1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}$
Limits:

The keywords from and to introduce
lower and upper limits on arbitrary things:
lim from {n→ inf } sum from 0 to n x sub
i

makes
delim $$
$lim from {n→ inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i$
Brackets and Braces:

Left and right brackets, braces, and the like, of the right
height are made with left and right.
left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1

produces
delim $$
$left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1$
The right clause is optional. Legal characters after left and right are braces, brackets, bars, c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for
nothing at all (useful for a rightsideonly bracket).
Vertical piles:

Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, cpile, and rpile.
pile {a above b above c}

produces
delim $$
$pile {a above b above c}$
There can be an arbitrary number of elements in a pile. lpile leftjustifies, pile and cpile center, with different vertical
spacing, and rpile right justifies.
Matrices:

Matrices are made with matrix.
matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol
{ 1 above 2 } }

produces
delim $$
$matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above
2 } }$
In addition, there is rcol for a rightjustified
column.
Diacritical marks:

Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar, vec, dyad, and under.
x dot = f(t) bar

is
delim $$
$x dot = f(t) bar$
y dotdot bar ~=~ n under

is
delim $$
$y dotdot bar ~=~ n under$
x vec ~=~ y dyad

is
delim $$
$x vec ~=~ y dyad$
Sizes and Fonts:

Sizes and font can be changed with size n or size ±n, roman, italic, bold, and font n. Size
and fonts can be changed globally in a document by gsize n and gfont n,
or by the commandline arguments sn and fn.
Successive display arguments:

Successive display arguments can be lined up. Place mark before the desired lineup point in the first equation; place lineup at the place that is to line up vertically in subsequent
equations.
Shorthands:

Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined with define:
define thing % replacement %

Defines a new token called thing which
will be replaced by replacement whenever it appears
thereafter. The % may be any character that does not occur
in replacement.
Keywords and Shorthands:

Keywords like sum int inf and shorthands like >= → and != are recognized.
Greek letters:

Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as in alpha or GAMMA.
Mathematical words:

Mathematical words like sin, cos,
and log are made Roman automatically.
troff(1) fourcharacter
escapes like • (•) can be used anywhere. Strings enclosed in double
quotes "..." are passed
through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be
used to communicate with troff when all else fails.
ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for
descriptions of the following attributes:
ATTRIBUTE TYPE  ATTRIBUTE VALUE


Availability  SUNWdoc


SEE ALSO
nroff(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(5), ms(5)
BUGS
To embolden characters such as digits and parentheses, it is necessary
to quote them, as in `bold "12.3"'.
Index
 NAME

 SYNOPSIS

 DESCRIPTION

 OPTIONS

 OPERANDS

 EQN LANGUAGE

 ATTRIBUTES

 SEE ALSO

 BUGS

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Time: 02:39:31 GMT, October 02, 2010