Man page of acct
Section: Maintenance Commands (8)
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acct, chargefee, ckpacct, dodisk, lastlogin, monacct, nulladm, prctmp, prdaily, prtacct, remove, shutacct, startup, turnacct - Provide accounting commands for shell scripts
chargefee User Number
dodisk [-o] [File ....]
nulladm [File ....]
prctmp File ....
prdaily [[-l] [mmdd]] | [-c]
prtacct [-f Specification] [-v] File ['Heading']
turnacct on | off | switch
There are a number of commands in the /usr/sbin/acct directory that,
along with other
accounting commands, enable you to produce a wide range of system
accounting records and files. For example, the runacct script invokes some
accounting commands and enables you to produce daily accounting records
and files. Some of the commands in the acct directory are invoked
accounting files become too large, and other commands can be
used by a system administrator to perform periodic accounting
Daily and monthly accounting reports can be produced by specifying
commands in the /usr/var/spool/cron/crontabs directory, which are
processed by the cron daemon. These accounting reports consist of a
collection of records that are produced at the end of any process and
on a daily and monthly periodic basis.
You can specify a prime-time period for any 24-hour weekday.
Prime-time hours are those contiguous hours of a weekday for which
premium fees might be charged for resource use. Nonprime-time hours
are those contiguous hours that are not defined as prime time.
Nonprime time also includes weekends and any holidays listed in the
When you set up accounting, you can include entries in the
/usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm file to run the following accounting
The ckpacct command checks the size of the /var/adm/pacct process
The runacct command includes other accounting shell scripts and
commands and creates daily and monthly accounting files.
The monacct command produces monthly summary accounting files in the
/var/adm/acct/fiscal accounting subdirectory from the daily
In addition, you can include the dodisk command in the
/usr/spool/cron/crontabs/root file. The dodisk command
creates disk usage accounting records.
The accounting commands are as follows:
The chargefee command is used by the system administrator to
charge the number of units specified by the Number parameter to
the login name specified by the User parameter. The
Number value may be an integer or a decimal value. The
chargefee command writes a record to the /var/adm/fee
file. This information is then merged with other accounting records
with the acctmerg command to create a daily /var/adm/fee
The chargefee command uses the printpw command to get the
list of all users stored in the password database.
The ckpacct command is used to check the size of the active
process accounting file, /var/adm/pacct. Normally, the
cron daemon processes this command from the crontabs file.
When the size of the active data files exceeds the number of blocks
specified by the BlockSize parameter, the ckpacct command
is used to invoke the turnacct switch command to turn off
process accounting. The default value for the BlockSize
parameter is 500.
When the number of free disk blocks in the var file system falls
below 500, the ckpacct command is used to inhibit process
accounting by invoking the turnacct off command. When at least
500 free disk blocks are again available, account processing is
reactivated. This feature is sensitive to how frequently ckpacct
When the environment variable MAILCOM is set to mail root adm, a
mail message is sent to the super-user (root) and to adm in case of an
The dodisk command initiates disk-usage accounting by calling
the diskusg command and the acctdisk command.
When you specify the -o flag with the dodisk command, a
more thorough but slower version of disk accounting by login
directory is initiated with the acctdusg command. Normally, the
runs the dodisk command. The following flag
may be used with the dodisk command:
Calls the acctdusg command instead of the diskusg
command to initiate disk accounting by login directory.
By default, the dodisk command does disk accounting on
special files recorded in the /etc/fstab file. But when you
specify file names with the File parameter, disk accounting is
done on only those files.
When you do not specify the -o flag, the File
parameter should specify special file names of mountable file
systems. When you specify both -o and one or more File(s),
File(s) should specify mount points of mounted file systems.
The lastlogin command updates the
/var/adm/acct/sum/loginlog file to show the last date each user
logged in. Normally, the runacct procedure, running under the
cron daemon, calls this command and adds the information to the
daily report; however, the lastlogin command can also be entered
by the system administrator. The lastlogin command uses the
printpw command to get a list of all users whose name and user ID
are stored in the password database file.
The monacct command collects daily or other periodic accounting
records into summary files in the /var/adm/acct/fiscal
subdirectory. After monthly summary files are produced, monacct
removes the old accounting files from the /var/adm/acct/sum
subdirectory and replaces them with the newly created summary files.
The cron daemon should run this command once each month on the
first day of the following month or some other specified day after all the
dailies have been produced. (The monacct example shows how to
enter this command for the cron daemon.)
The Number parameter is a numerical value in the range 1 < n <
12 (where n is the month) that indicates the month for which
daily files are processed. The default value used for the
Number parameter is the current month. The monacct command
stores the newly created summary files in the
/var/adm/acct/fiscal subdirectory and restarts new summary files
in /var/adm/acct/sum, the cumulative summaries to which daily
record summaries are appended.
The nulladm command creates the file specified in the File
parameter, gives read (r) and write (w) permissions
to the file owner and group, read (r) permission to other
users, and ensures that the file owner and group is adm.
Various accounting shell procedures invoke the nulladm command.
The system administrator uses this command to set up active data
files, such as the /var/adm/wtmp file.
The system administrator may use the prctmp command to output
the session record file specified by File and created by the
(this is normally the /var/adm/acct/nite/ctmp file).
The prdaily command is invoked from the runacct shell
procedure to format an ASCII file of the accounting data of the
previous day. The records making up this file are located in the
/var/adm/acct/sum/rprtmmdd files, where mmdd is the
month and day for which the file is produced. Use the mmdd
parameter to specify a date other than the current day. The following flags
may be used with the prdaily command:
Reports exceptional resource usage by command. May be used only on
accounting records for the current day.
Reports exceptional usage by login ID for the specified date.
The prtacct command formats and displays any total accounting
file specified by the File parameter; records for these files
are defined by a type tacct structure in the tacct.h
include file. You can enter the prtacct command to output any
tacct file to the default output device. For example, you may
output a daily report keyed to connect time, to process time, to
disk usage, and to printer usage. To specify a title for the report,
specify a name for the Heading parameter with enclosed single or
double quotes. The following flags
may be used with the prtacct command:
Selects type tacct structure members to be output, using the
structure-member selection mechanism specified for the acctmerg
Produces verbose output in which more precise notation is used for
Specifies a heading for report members.
The type tacct structure
defines a total accounting record format, parts of which are used by
various accounting commands. Members of the type tacct structure
whose data types are specified as an array of two double elements
have both prime-time and nonprime-time values. The type tacct structure
has the following members.
A field for the login name with the same number of characters NSZ as the
ut_user member of the utmp structure.
Cumulative CPU time in minutes.
Cumulative K-core time in minutes.
Cumulative number of characters transferred in blocks of 512 bytes.
Cumulative number of blocks read and written.
Cumulative connect time in minutes.
Cumulative disk-usage time in minutes.
Queuing system (printer) fee in number of pages.
Special services fee expressed in units.
A count of the number of processes.
A count of the number of login sessions.
A count of the number of disk samples.
The remove command deletes all /var/adm/acct/sum/wtmp*,
/var/adm/acct/sum/pacct*, and /var/adm/acct/nite/lock*
files as part of the daily cleanup procedure called by the runacct
The shutacct command turns process accounting off and
adds a 'Reason' record to the /var/adm/wtmp file. This
command is usually invoked during a system shutdown.
The startup command turns on the accounting functions and
adds a reason record to the /var/adm/wtmp file. Usually
the startup command is invoked by the /sbin/init.d/acct
script when the
system is started up.
The turnacct command provides an interface to the accton
command to turn process accounting on or off, or to create a new
/var/adm/pacctn process accounting file. This command can
be executed only by a superuser or by the adm login name. Only
one of the arguments on, off, or switch may be used:
Turns process accounting on.
Turns process accounting off.
The switch flag is used to create a new /var/adm/pacctn
file when the current /var/adm/pacctn file is too large. The
suffix n (where n is a positive integer) indicates the
previous active /var/adm/pacctn file.
After the currently active /var/adm/pacctn file is renamed,
a new active /var/adm/pacct file is created and process accounting is
This command is usually called by the ckpacct command,
running under the cron daemon, to keep the active pacct
data file down to a manageable size.
You should not share accounting files among nodes in a distributed
environment. Each node should have its own copy of the various
When you are also using the sa command, sa does not know
whether information is stored in the incremental /var/adm/pacctn
file or in any other /var/adm/pacctn summary file by the
acct/* commands (see the turnacct command).
To charge smith for 10 units of work on a
financial report, enter:
/usr/sbin/acct/chargefee smith 10
A record is created in the /var/adm/fee file, which the
acctmerg command is subsequently instructed to merge with
records in other accounting files to produce the daily report.
To check the size of a /var/adm/pacctn summary accounting file,
add the following instruction to the /usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm
5 * * * * /usr/sbin/acct/ckpacct
This example shows another instruction that the cron daemon
reads and acts upon when it is included in the
/usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm shell script file. The
ckpacct command is set to run at 5 minutes past every hour
(5 *) every day. This command is only one of many accounting instructions
normally passed to the cron daemon from the
/usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm shell script file. See the
manual for details.
To initiate disk-usage accounting, add the following to the
0 2 * * 4 /usr/sbin/acct/dodisk
This example illustrates a shell script instruction that the
cron daemon reads and then processes. The dodisk command
runs at 2 a.m. (0 2) each Thursday (4). This command is one
of many accounting instructions normally passed to the cron daemon
from a /usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm shell script file. See
manual for details.
To produce a monthly accounting report, at the beginning of each month,
add the following instruction to the /usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm
15 5 1 * * /usr/sbin/acct/monacct
This example is an instruction that the cron daemon reads and
then processes. The monacct command runs at 5:15 (15 5) the
first day of each month (1). This command is only one of many
accounting instructions normally passed to the cron daemon from
the /usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm shell script file. See
manual for details.
To turn on the accounting functions when the system
is started up, add the following to the /etc/rc.config file:
To set the variable, use the following rcmgr command:
rcmgr set ACCOUNTING YES
The startup shell procedure records the time and cleans up the
records produced the previous day.
Specifies the command path.
Header files defining structures used to organize accounting information.
Accumulates the fees charged to each login name.
Current database file for process accounting information.
Another process accounting database file, which is produced when the
/var/adm/pacct file gets too large.
Login/logout database file.
Shell procedure that calculates limits for exceptional usage by
the login ID.
Shell procedure that calculates limits of exceptional usage by
Working directory that contains daily accounting database files.
Contains information about file systems.
Working subdirectory that contains accounting summary database files.
Commands: acctcms(8), acctcom(8), acctcon(8),
acctmerg(8), acctprc(8), cron(8), fwtmp(8),
printpw(8), runacct(8), rcmgr(8)
- RELATED INFORMATION
This document was created by
using the manual pages.
Time: 02:40:41 GMT, October 02, 2010