The mkproto command is used to bootstrap a new file system. First a new file system is created using newfs. mkproto is then used to copy files from the old file system into the new file system according to the directions found in the prototype file proto. The prototype file contains tokens separated by spaces or newlines. The first tokens comprise the specification for the root directory. File specifications consist of tokens, giving the mode, the user ID, the group ID, and the initial contents of the file. The syntax of the contents field depends on the mode.
The mode token for a file is a 6-character string. The first character specifies the type of the file. (The characters -bcd specify regular, block-special, character-special, and directory files, respectively.) The second character of the type is either a u or a - (dash) to specify setuid mode or not. The third character is either a g or a - (dash) for the setgid mode. The rest of the mode is a 3-digit octal number, giving the owner, group, and other read, write, execute permissions. (See the chmod(1) command for more information.)
Two decimal number tokens come after the mode; they specify the user and group IDs of the owner of the file: If the file is a regular file, the next token is a pathname from which the contents and size are copied. If the file is a block-special or a character-special file, two decimal number tokens follow, giving the major and minor device numbers. If the file is a directory, mkproto makes the entries . (dot) and .. (dot dot) and then reads a list of names and (recursively) file specifications for the entries in the directory. The scan is terminated with the token $.
The following listing shows a sample prototype specification.
d--777 3 1
usr d--777 3 1
sh ---755 3 1 /bin/sh
ken d--755 6 1
b0 b--644 3 1 0 0
c0 c--644 3 1 0 0
Specifies the command path
Commands: fsck(8), fsdb(8), newfs(8). delim off