Content-type: text/html Man page of mkisofs

mkisofs

Section: Maintenance Commands (8)
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NAME

mkisofs - Create a ISO9660 filesystem with optional Rock Ridge attributes.  

SYNOPSIS

/usr/sbin/mkisofs [ -a ] [ -b boot_image ] [ -c boot_catalog ] [ -A application_id ] [ -f ] [ -d ] [ -D ] [ -i include-list ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -L ] [ -p preparer ] [ -P publisher ] [ -r ] [ -R ] [ -T ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -V volid ] [ -x path ] [ -z ] [ -m glob ] -o filename path  

FLAGS

-a Include all files on the ISO9660 filesystem. Normally files that contain the characters '~' or '#' will not be included (these are typically backup files for editors under UNIX).

-A application_id
Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header. This should describe the application that will be on the CD-ROM. There is space on the CD-ROM for 128 characters of information. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with APPI=id. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-b boot_image
Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used when making an "El Torito" bootable CD-ROM. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to mkisofs. This option is required to make a bootable CD-ROM. The boot image must be exactly the size of either a 1.2, 1.44, or a 2.88 meg floppy, and mkisofs will use this size when creating the output ISO9660 filesystem. It is assumed that the first 512 byte sector should be read from the boot image (it is essentially emulating a normal floppy drive). This will work, for example, if the boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.
-c boot_catalog
Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to be used when making an "El Torito" bootable CD-ROM. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to mkisofs. This option is required to make a bootable CD-ROM. This file will be created by mkisofs in the source filesystem. Ensure that the specified filename does not conflict with an existing file, as it will be quietly overwritten. Select a unique and descriptive name such as boot.catalog.
-d
Omit trailing period from files that do not have a period. This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Use with caution.
-D
Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them in the way we see them. This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it works on many systems. Use with caution.
-f
Follow symbolic links when generating the filesystem. When this option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file will be ignored.
-i include-list
Use the specified file as a list of files to add to the directory tree. This is useful for quickly repacking a CD-ROM while adding files to it. The format of this file is path1/file=path2 where path1 is the directory in the ISO9660 file system where file should appear and path2 is the where to find the file. This option is not recommended
-l
Allow full 32 character filenames. Normally the ISO9660 filename will be in an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS, even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up to 32 characters. If you use this option, the CD-ROM may be difficult to use on a MS-DOS system.
-L
Allow filenames to begin with a period. Usually, a leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.
-m glob
Exclude glob from being written to CD-ROM. glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the path as with option -x ). Technically glob is matched against the d->d_name part of the directory entry. Multiple globs may be excluded (up to 1000). For example: mkisofs -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar would exclude all files ending in ".o", called "core" or "foobar" to be copied to CD-ROM. Note that if you had a directory called "foobar" it too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded.
-M path
Specifies path to existing ISO9660 image to be merged. The output of mkisofs will be a new session which should get written to the end of the image specified in -M. Typically this requires multi-session capability for the recorder and CD-ROM drive that you are attempting to write this image to. Support for this option is not yet complete.
-N
Omit version numbers from ISO9660 file names. This may violate the ISO9660 standard, but no one really uses the version numbers anyway. Use with caution.
-o filename
is the name of the file to which the ISO9660 filesystem image should be written. This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it can correspond directly to the device name of the CD-ROM writer. If not specified, stdout is used. Note that the output can also be a block special device for a regular disk drive, in which case the disk partition can be mounted and examined to ensure that the premastering was done correctly.
-P publisher_id
Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header. This should describe the publisher of the CD-ROM, usually with a mailing address and phone number. There is space on the CD-ROM for 128 characters of information. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-p preparer_id
Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header. This should describe the preparer of the CD-ROM, usually with a mailing address and phone number. There is space on the CD-ROM for 128 characters of information. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-R
Generate SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to further describe the files on the ISO9660 filesystem.
-r
This is similar to the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set to more useful values. The UID and GID are set to zero, because they are usually only useful on the author's system, and not useful to the client. All the file read bits are set true, so that files and directories are globally readable on the client. If any execute bit is set for a file, set all of the execute bits, so that executables are globally executable on the client. If any search bit is set for a directory, set all of the search bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client. All write bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will be mounted read-only in any case. If any of the special mode bits are set, clear them, because file locks are not useful on a read-only file system, and set-id bits are not desirable for UID 0 or GID 0.
-T
Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CD-ROM, which can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to help establish the correct file names. There is also information present in the file that indicates the major and minor numbers for block and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link file given.
-V volid
Specifies the volume ID to be written into the master block. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-v
Verbose execution.
-x path
Exclude path from being written to CD-ROM. path must be the complete pathname that results from concatenating the pathname given as command line argument and the path relative to this directory. Multiple paths may be excluded (up to 1000). For example: mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local
-z
Generate special SUSP records for transparently compressed files. This is only of use and interest for hosts that support transparent decompression. This is an experimental feature, and no hosts yet support this, but there are ALPHA patches for Linux that can make use of this feature.
 

DESCRIPTION

The mkisofs utility is a pre-mastering program to generate the ISO9660 filesystem. It takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates a binary image corresponding to an ISO9660 filesystem when written to a block device.

mkisofs is also capable of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol records specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol. This is used to describe the files in the ISO9660 filesystem to a UNIX host, and provides information such as longer filenames, UID and GID, POSIX permissions, and block and character devices.

Each file written to the ISO9660 filesystem must have a filename in the 8.3 format (8 characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case), even if Rock Ridge is in use. This filename is used on systems that are not able to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS), and each filename in each directory must be different from the other filenames in the same directory. mkisofs generally tries to form correct names by forcing the UNIX filename to upper case and truncating as required, but often times this yields unsatisfactory results when there are cases where the truncated names are not all unique. mkisofs assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names that are otherwise the same are found the name with the lower priority is renamed to have a 3 digit number as an extension (where the number is guaranteed to be unique). An example of this would be the files foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~: The file foo.bar.~1~ will be written as FOO.000;1 The file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

Note that mkisofs is not designed to communicate with the CD-ROM writer directly. Most CD-ROM writers have proprietary command sets which vary from one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized tool to actually burn the disk. The cdwrite utility is one such tool that runs under Linux and performs this task. The latest version of cdwrite is capable of communicating with Phillips/IMS/Kodak, HP and Yamaha drives. Most writers come with some version of DOS software that allows a direct image copy of an ISO9660 image to the writer. The current version of cdwrite is available from sunsite.unc.edu: /utils/disk-management/cdwrite-2.0.tar.gz

Most CD-ROM writers are very particular about timing. Once a CD-ROM write session is started, the buffer must not empty before completion, or the CD-ROM will be corrupted. It is critical to maintain an uninterrupted data stream to the CD-ROM writer for the entire time that the CD-ROM is being written.


path is the path of the directory tree to be copied into the ISO9660 filesystem.  

CONFIGURATION

The mkisofs utility looks for the .mkisofsrc file, first in the current working directory, then in the user's home directory, and then in the directory in which the mkisofs binary is stored. This file is assumed to contain a series of lines of the form TAG=value, and in this way you can specify certain options. The case of the tag is not significant. Some fields in the volume header are not settable on the command line, but can be altered through this facility. Comments may be placed in this file, using lines which start with a # character.
APPI
The application identifier should describe the application that will be on the CD-ROM. There is space on the CD-ROM for 128 characters of information. May be overridden using the -A command line option.
COPY
The copyright information, often the name of a file on the CD-ROM containing the copyright notice. There is space in the CD-ROM for 37 characters of information.
ABST
The abstract information, often the name of a file on the CD-ROM containing an abstract. There is space in the CD-ROM for 37 characters of information.
BIBL
The bibliographic information, often the name of a file on the CD-ROM containing a bibliography. There is space in the CD-ROM for 37 characters of information.
PREP
This should describe the preparer of the CD-ROM, usually with a mailing address and phone number. There is space on the CD-ROM for 128 characters of information. May be overridden using the -p command line option.
PUBL
This should describe the publisher of the CD-ROM, usually with a mailing address and phone number. There is space on the CD-ROM for 128 characters of information. May be overridden using the -P command line option.
SYSI
The System Identifier. There is space on the CD-ROM for 32 characters of information.
VOLI
The Volume Identifier. There is space on the CD-ROM for 32 characters of information. May be overridden using the -V command line option.
VOLS
The Volume Set Name. There is space on the CD-ROM for 278 characters of information.

mkisofs can also be configured at compile time with defaults for many of these fields. See the file defaults.h.  

RESTRICTIONS

Any files that have hard links to files not in the tree being copied to the ISO9660 filessytem will have an incorrect file reference count.  

EXAMPLES

The following example shows a typical build instruction using /build_disk as the target location for the image: # mkisofs -D -R -a -d -o /build_disk/dunix.cdfs /cdimage  

FILES

The executable image. The configuration file  

AUTHOR

Eric Youngdale <[email protected]> or <[email protected]> wrote both the Linux isofs9660 filesystem and the mkisofs utility, and is currently maintaining them. The copyright for the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing, Incorporated.

The mkisofs utility is available for anonymous ftp from tsx-11.mit.edu in /pub/linux/packages/mkisofs.. delim off


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
FLAGS
DESCRIPTION
CONFIGURATION
RESTRICTIONS
EXAMPLES
FILES
AUTHOR

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Time: 02:40:28 GMT, October 02, 2010