Content-type: text/html Man page of nis_manual_setup

nis_manual_setup

Section: Environments, Tables, and Troff Macros (7)
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

nis_manual_setup - Describes how to manually set up the Network Information Service (NIS)  

DESCRIPTION

Setting up NIS includes configuring the following: Master server Slave servers Clients

Note

You must have the Additional Networking Services subset installed to create an NIS master or slave server.

C2 security (C2 class of trust as defined in the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC)) enables you to create secure and nonsecure versions of the NIS maps. Tru64 UNIX provides secure and nonsecure versions of the passwd file. For more information, see the Security manual and the makedbm(8) reference page.  

Setting Up the Master Server

There can be only one master server in an NIS domain. To set up a master server, log in as superuser and perform the following steps: Create the /var/yp/src/mail.aliases file.

The mail.aliases file defines networkwide mail aliases. Creating this file is optional. However, if you want to define and distribute mail aliases on your network, you must create it. If you do not create a mail.aliases file, when the NIS maps are built, a message telling you that the mail.aliases file could not be found is displayed on the screen.
For information on defining mail aliases, see the aliases(4) reference page. Create the /var/yp/src/netgroup file.
The netgroup file defines networkwide groups and is used for permission checking when doing remote mounts, remote logins, and accessing remote shells. Creating this file is optional. However, if you want to define and distribute network group information on your network, you must create it. If you do not create a netgroup file, when the NIS maps are built, a message telling you that the netgroup file could not be found is displayed on the screen.
For information on defining network groups, see the netgroup(4) reference page. Copy into the /var/yp/src directory the local /etc files that you intend to make into NIS maps for distribution. Be sure that the information in the files is up to date.
When the default set of NIS maps is created, the following file names are recognized in the /var/yp/src directory: aliases, group, hosts, mail.aliases, netgroup, networks, passwd, protocols, rpc, and services. If you do not want to distribute one of the default maps, do not copy the local /etc file for it into the /var/yp/src directory. If a file is absent from the /var/yp/src directory, when the NIS maps are built, a message telling you that the file could not be found is displayed on the screen. Remove the entry for root from the passwd file after you copy it into the /var/yp/src directory. Copy automount maps, or other site-specific maps, into the /var/yp/src directory. For information on creating automount maps and other site-specific maps, see the Network Administration manual. Create the domain directory by entering the following command, replacing test_domain with the name of your domain: # mkdir /var/yp/test_domain
Note

A NIS domain name is not the same as a BIND domain name. If you configure the system with an incorrect NIS domain name, all NIS-related operations (such as logging in and the ls -l command) hang for several minutes, then fail.

Edit the /var/yp/Makefile file, if necessary.

If you are using the NIS master server to serve the auto.master map, the auto.home map, or both, you must remove the number sign (#) from the beginning of the following lines: #all: passwd group hosts networks rpc services protocols netgroup \ # aliases auto.home auto.master . . . #$(YPDBDIR)/$(DOM)/auto.home.time: $(DIR)/auto.home # [email protected] [ -f $(DIR)/auto.home ]; then \ # $(SED) -e "/^#/d" -e s/#.*$$// $(DIR)/auto.home | \ # $(MAKEDBM) - $(YPDBDIR)/$(DOM)/auto.home; \ # $(TOUCH) $(YPDBDIR)/$(DOM)/auto.home.time; \ # $(ECHO) "updated auto.home"; \ # if [ ! $(NOPUSH) ]; then \ # $(YPPUSH) auto.home; \ # $(ECHO) "pushed auto.home"; \ # else \ # : ; \ # fi \ # else \ # $(ECHO) "couldn't find $(DIR)/auto.home"; \ # fi # #$(YPDBDIR)/$(DOM)/auto.master.time: $(DIR)/auto.master # [email protected] [ -f $(DIR)/auto.master ]; then \ # $(SED) -e "/^#/d" -e s/#.*$$// $(DIR)/auto.master | \ # $(MAKEDBM) - $(YPDBDIR)/$(DOM)/auto.master; \ # $(TOUCH) $(YPDBDIR)/$(DOM)/auto.master.time; \ # $(ECHO) "updated auto.master"; \ # if [ ! $(NOPUSH) ]; then \ # $(YPPUSH) auto.master; \ # $(ECHO) "pushed auto.master"; \ # else \ # : ; \ # fi \ # else \ # $(ECHO) "couldn't find $(DIR)/auto.master"; \ # fi . . . #auto.home: $(YPDBDIR)/$(DOM)/auto.home.time #auto.master: $(YPDBDIR)/$(DOM)/auto.master.time . . . #$(DIR)/auto.home: #$(DIR)/auto.master:
Place a number sign (#) at the beginning of the following lines: all: passwd group hosts networks rpc services protocols netgroup \
      aliases Create the ypservers map.
The ypservers map is a list of all of the domain's slave servers. To create this map, enter the following command, replacing test_domain with the name of your domain and replacing slave1, slave2, to slaven with the names of the slave servers: # /var/yp/makedbm - /var/yp/test_domain/ypservers slave1 slave2 slaven
Be sure to include on this list all of the slave servers in your domain. If you add a slave server to your domain, you must remake this list. Create the NIS maps.
To create the NIS maps that are distributed throughout the domain, edit the /var/yp/Makefile file to add the domain name you have chosen.
For example, if your domain name is test_domain, edit the /var/yp/Makefile file in the following way: . . . # # ***** DOM must be filled in with the domain name !! # DOM=test_domain . . .
Then change to the /var/yp/nis_domain directory (test_domain in this example) and enter the following commands: # cd test_domain # make -f /var/yp/Makefile NOPUSH="Y" Decide whether to run the yppasswdd daemon.
The yppasswdd daemon runs on the master server and allows the master copy of the password file to be updated remotely by using the yppasswd command. Digital recommends that you run the yppasswdd daemon.
If you decide to run the yppasswdd daemon, edit the /etc/rc.config file by issuing the following command: # /usr/sbin/rcmgr set NIS_PASSWDD YES To complete setting up the master server, see the Setting Up NIS Clients section in this reference page.
 

Setting Up Slave Servers

Use the following procedure to set up a slave server: Create the domain directory by entering the following command, replacing test_domain with the name of your domain: # mkdir /var/yp/test_domain

Note

A NIS domain name is not the same as a BIND domain name. If you configure the system with an incorrect NIS domain name, all NIS-related operations (such as logging in and ls -l commands) hang for several minutes, then fail.

Copy the master's maps to the slave server.

You must copy each map from the master individually, using the following command format:
/var/yp/ypxfr -h nis_master -c -d nis_domain mapname
For example, to transfer the passwd maps from the master server, host1, to a slave server, type the following commands. The domain in this example is test_domain.
# /var/yp/ypxfr -h host1 -c -d test_domain passwd.byname # /var/yp/ypxfr -h host1 -c -d test_domain passwd.byuid The /var/yp/nis_domain directory on the master server lists all of the maps that your slave server can serve. Edit the /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root file by adding the following lines. Note that there should be no blank lines in the /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root file. . . . # Network Information Service: SLAVE server entries 30 * * * * sh /var/yp/ypxfr_1perhour 31 1,13 * * * sh /var/yp/ypxfr_2perday 32 1 * * * sh /var/yp/ypxfr_1perday The first line is a comment. The second line runs the following command once an hour at 30 minutes past the hour: sh /var/yp/ypxfr_1perhour The third line runs the following command twice per day at 01:31 and 13:31: sh /var/yp/ypxfr_2perday The fourth line runs the following command once per day at 01:32: sh /var/yp/ypxfr_1perday
See the crontab(1) reference page for more information. To complete setting up a slave server, see the Setting Up NIS Clients section in this reference page.
 

Setting Up NIS Clients

This section explains how to set up an NIS client. Because the master server and all slave servers are considered NIS clients, you must also complete these steps to set up these servers: Prepare the local /etc files.

If you want your system to query an NIS server for password or group information, or both, a plus sign followed by a colon (+:) must be the last line of the /etc/passwd file, the /etc/group file, or both. For example: root:9Pf.mMEPUz08t:0:1:System PRIVILEGED Account,,,:/:/bin/csh field:OnGgTH5moq4Yw:0:1:Field Svc Account,,,:/usr/field:/bin/csh operator:Ni6WK/uqs0vaE:25:28:Operator Account,,,:/etc/operator: guest:Nologin:100:31:Guest account:/usr/spool/uucppublic:/bin/date +:
Note

If +: is not the last line of the file, all entries following the +: are ignored.

Edit the /etc/rc.config file by using the /usr/sbin/rcmgr utility. The syntax for the /usr/sbin/rcmgr command is: /usr/sbin/rcmgr set variable value Digital recommends that you set the value of the NIS_CONF variable and the NIS_ARGS in the /etc/rc.config file to the following values for the master server, slave servers, and clients:

NIS_CONF YES NIS_ARGS -S nisdomain, server1,server2,server3 You must set the NIS_TYPE variable to the system type: MASTER for master servers, SLAVE for slave servers, and CLIENT for clients. The servers must list themselves in the server list if the system is running with the -S option.
For example, to set up host2 to be a client server in the domain test_domain, and run the ypbind daemon with the -S option, enter the following commands:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set NIS_CONF YES # /usr/sbin/rcmgr set NIS_TYPE CLIENT # /usr/sbin/rcmgr set NIS_DOMAIN test_domain # /usr/sbin/rcmgr set NIS_ARGS "-S test_domain,host2,host1,host3" Start the NIS daemons by issuing the following command:
# /sbin/init.d/nis start To reconfigure NIS on your system, you must kill the daemons that are running and the restart them. To kill the daemons, enter the following command:
# /sbin/init.d/nis stop Restart the daemons by using the "/sbin/init.d/nis start" command.
 

Post-Setup Procedures

You must edit the /etc/svc.conf file after you configure NIS on your system. The /etc/svc.conf file is the database service selection configuration file that your system references to determine what distributed database lookup services are running on your system, which databases are being served by them, and in what order to query them. After configuring NIS, you must edit the /etc/svc.conf file to tell your system that you want NIS servers queried for distributed database information. For information on editing the /etc/svc.conf file, see the Network Administration manual.  

Adding Users in a Distributed Environment

In an NIS environment you can add a user account to either the local passwd file or the NIS distributed passwd file. Accounts added to the local passwd file are visible only to the system to which they are added. Accounts added to the NIS distributed passwd file are visible to all NIS clients that have access to the distributed file.  

Gathering Information

Before adding new user accounts to the passwd database, gather the following information: Determine whether you want to add the account to the local passwd file or the the NIS distributed passwd file. Gather the following information on the users you want to add: Login names User identification numbers (UIDs) Group identification numbers (GIDs) Real names, office numbers, and telephone extensions Initial working directories Program to use as a shell  

Adding User Accounts to the NIS Distributed passwd File

To add user accounts in a distributed environment, you must edit the master passwd file on the NIS master server. To do this, perform the following steps: Log in as superuser on the NIS master server. Change to the /var/yp/src directory. Edit the passwd database to add an entry for each new user.
The format for each entry is the same as the format in the /etc/passwd file, which is as follows:
login-name:passwd field:UID:GID:user-info:initial-working-directory:shell-program
Leave the passwd field blank. Rebuild the passwd database.
Change to the /var/yp directory and enter the make passwd command, as follows: # cd /var/yp # make passwd updated passwd pushed passwd Use the yppasswd command to set the password for each new user, as follows: # yppasswd new_user NIS password: New password: password Retype new password: password NIS passwd changed on NIS-master
Your system is not secure if no password is set.
 

Adding User Accounts to the Local passwd File in an NIS Distributed Environment

To add a user account to only the local system in an NIS environment, you must add the account manually. (For more information, see the System Administration manual.) These entries must appear before to the plus sign and colon (+:) at the end of the file.

A user's account information may be partially distributed. If the user's entry in the /etc/passwd file has a prepended "+", both databases are read with the information from the /etc/passwd file (except for the UID and gid fields) overlaying the information from the NIS distributed user account database.

If the user's entry in the /etc/passwd file has a prepended "-", the user is excluded from the password database.

See the Security guide for more information.  

RELATED INFORMATION

domainname(1), nis_intro(7), nissetup(8), svc.conf(4), ypbind(8), yppasswd(1), ypserv(8), ypxfr(8)

System Administration, Network Administration, Security delim off


 

Index

NAME
DESCRIPTION
Setting Up the Master Server
Setting Up Slave Servers
Setting Up NIS Clients
Post-Setup Procedures
Adding Users in a Distributed Environment
Gathering Information
Adding User Accounts to the NIS Distributed passwd File
Adding User Accounts to the Local passwd File in an NIS Distributed Environment
RELATED INFORMATION

This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 02:40:27 GMT, October 02, 2010