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network_manual_setup

Section: Environments, Tables, and Troff Macros (7)
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NAME

network_manual_setup - Describes how to manually set up the network  

DESCRIPTION

Setting up the network manually includes the following tasks: Configuring the network interfaces Optionally, enabling the following network daemons: rwhod routed gated writesrv Optionally, setting up a router Optionally, setting up static routes Adding hosts to the /etc/hosts file Optionally, adding hosts to the /etc/hosts.equiv file Optionally, adding network names to the /etc/networks file Starting the network  

Configuring Network Interfaces

Use the following procedure to configure the network interfaces on your system: Check to see if the host name is set for your system by entering the following command:

# /sbin/hostname If your system does not have a host name, set it by using the rcmgr command to modify the HOSTNAME in the /etc/rc.config file. For example, to set your host name to zzanny, you would enter the following command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set HOSTNAME zzanny Set the number of network interfaces you want to configure on your system by using the rcmgr command to modify the NUM_NETCONFIG in the /etc/rc.config file. For example, if you wanted to configure two interfaces on your system, you would enter the following command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set NUM_NETCONFIG 2 The maximum number of network devices you can have in your hardware configuration is system dependent. Set the value of MAX_NETDEVS to this maximum in the /etc/rc.config file by using the rcmgr command. For example, if your hardware can support a maximum of 24 network devices, enter the following command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set MAX_NETDEVS 24
Note

The maximum number of network devices currently supported by netsetup is 24.

There is one NETDEV_n entry in the /etc/rc.config file for each network device you want to configure on your system. Set the name of the network device you want to configure by using the rcmgr command to modify the NETDEV_n entry in the /etc/rc.config file. This command has the following syntax:

/usr/sbin/rcmgr set NETDEV_n device

The value of n can be from 0 to 1 less than the value of MAX_NETDEVS. The device parameter specifies the name of the network device on your system (for example ln0, fza0). The /etc/rc.config file contains a pair of NETDEV_n and IFCONFIG_n entries for each network device that you configure on your system.

The IFCONFIG_n entry defines the ifconfig command parameters for the corresponding NETDEV_n device. Set the ifconfig command parameters for the corresponding NETDEV_n device by using the rcmgr command to modify IFCONFIG_n in the /etc/rc.config file. Enclose the parameters in double quotation marks and separate each field with a space. The syntax of this command varies depending on the type of network device you are configuring: If you are configuring an Ethernet device, the syntax is as follows:
/usr/sbin/rcmgr set IFCONFIG_n "address netmask mask parameters"
The parameters are as follows: Is a number from 0 to 1 less than the value of MAX_NETDEVS. For example, set IFCONFIG_0 to the ifconfig parameters for device NETDEV_0. Is the IP address of the NETDEV_n device. The address parameter can alternatively be the host name. Is a keyword indicating that the following string identifies the network mask. Is the network mask. Are optional, additional ifconfig parameters. For example, you might want to specify no trailers or a different broadcast address. Additional parameters that you specify are dependent on your network configuration. If you have no additional parameters, omit them from the rcmgr command that sets IFCONFIG_n. If you are configuring a SLIP device, the syntax is as follows:
/usr/sbin/rcmgr set IFCONFIG_n "address rem_address netmask mask parameters"
The parameters are the same as the Ethernet device with the addition of the rem_address parameter, which is the IP address of the remote SLIP interface. If you are configuring a Token Ring device, the syntax is as follows:
/usr/sbin/rcmgr set IFCONFIG_n "address netmask mask speed number parameters"
The parameters are the same as the Ethernet device with the addition of the speed and number parameters: Is a keyword indicating that the following number defines the speed of the Token Ring adapter. Is the speed of the Token Ring adapter. The speed can be either 4Mb or 16Mb. The default speed is 16Mb.
See the ifconfig(8) reference page for more information.
If your system has more than one network interface, repeat steps 4 and 5 for the other network interfaces on your system. For SLIP interfaces, there is a SLIPTTY_n in the /etc/rc.config file for each NETDEV_n SLIP device entry that you configure on your system.
The SLIPTTY_n entry defines the slattach command parameters for the corresponding NETDEV_n and IFCONFIG_n entries. Set the slattach command parameters by using the rcmgr command to modify SLIPTTY_n in the /etc/rc.config file. This command has the following syntax:
/usr/sbin/rcmgr set SLIPTTY_n "[flags] ttyname [baudrate]"
The parameters are as follows: Is a number from 0 to 1 less than the value MAX_NETDEVS. For example, set SLIPTTY_2 to the slattach parameters for SLIP device NETDEV_2. Are optional slattach parameters. For example, you might want to enable TCP header compression. If you do not want any flags, omit them from the rcmgr command that sets SLIPTTY_n. Is the name of any valid terminal device in the /dev directory. This can be either the full path name (for example, /dev/tty01) or the name in the /dev directory (for example, tty01). Is the speed of the connection. The default speed is 9600 baud.
See slattach(8) for more information. Add an entry in the /etc/hosts file for your host, using the procedure in the Network Administration .
If your system has more than one network interface, each interface might or might not have a name. Add an entry to the /etc/hosts file for each interface on your system that has a name, using the procedure in the Adding Hosts to the /etc/hosts File section in this reference page. Optionally, enable network daemons, set up a router, add static routes, or add entries to network configuration files by using the procedures in the corresponding sections of this reference page. Start the network, using the procedure in the Starting the Network section in this reference page.
See the Related Information section in this reference page for more network configuration information.
 

Enabling and Disabling Network Daemons

This section explains how to enable and disable the following network daemons: rwhod routed gated writesrv

You can choose to run either the routed or the gated daemon; however, you cannot run both.  

Running the rwhod Daemon

The rwhod daemon maintains the database used by the rwho and ruptime commands. Running the rwhod daemon is optional; however, it must be running to use these commands.  

Starting and Enabling the rwhod Daemon

To start the rwhod daemon, perform the following steps: If the network is started, check to see if the rwhod daemon is running by issuing the following command:
# /bin/ps ax | grep rwhod If the network is started and the rwhod daemon is not running, enter the following command to start the rwhod daemon in the background:
# /usr/sbin/rwhod

If you enable the rwhod daemon, it is started automatically by the /sbin/init.d/rwho script each time the network is restarted or the system is rebooted. Use the rcmgr command to modify the entry for the rwhod daemon in the /etc/rc.config file:

# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set RWHOD yes
 

Stopping and Disabling the rwhod Daemon

To stop the rwhod daemon, perform the following steps: Check to see if the rwhod daemon is running by issuing the following command:
# /bin/ps ax | grep rwhod If the rwhod daemon is running, kill the process by issuing the /bin/kill command with the process ID (PID) for the daemon obtained by using the /bin/ps command.

If you disable the rwhod daemon, it is not started automatically by the /sbin/init.d/rwho script each time you restart the network or reboot the system. Use the following rcmgr command to disable the rwhod daemon in the /etc/rc.config file:

# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set RWHOD no

For more information, see rwhod(8).  

Running the routed Daemon

The routed daemon automatically updates the internal routing tables in your host. It does this by using the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Running the routed daemon is optional.

Note

You cannot run both the routed daemon and the gated daemon on your system.

 

Starting and Enabling the routed Daemon

To start the routed daemon on your system, perform the following steps: If the network is started, check to see whether the routed daemon is running by issuing the following command:
# /bin/ps ax | grep routed If you want to add static routes, use the procedure in the Adding Static Routes section in this reference page. If the network is started and the routed daemon is not running, you can start the routed daemon with or without flags.
To start the routed daemon without flags, enter the following command:
# /usr/sbin/routed To start the routed daemon with flags, include the flags in the command line, separating each flag with a space. For example, the following command starts the routed daemon with the -s flag, which causes the routed daemon to supply RIP information even if it is not functioning as an Internet router:
# /usr/sbin/routed -s For more information, see routed(8).

If you enable the routed daemon, it is started automatically by the /sbin/init.d/route script each time the network is restarted or the system is rebooted. To enable the routed daemon, perform the following steps: Use the following rcmgr command to enable the routed daemon:

# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set ROUTED yes Check to see if the routed daemon flags are set in /etc/rc.config, by using the following rcmgr command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr get ROUTED_FLAGS If flags are set and you do not want any routed daemon flags, reset the flags in /etc/rc.config, by using the following rcmgr command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set ROUTED_FLAGS "" If you want to change the routed daemon flags, reset the flags in /etc/rc.config, by using the rcmgr command. Enclose the flags in double quotation marks and separate each flag with a space.
See the routed(8) reference page for more information.
 

Stopping and Disabling the routed Daemon

To stop the routed daemon, perform the following steps: Check to see if the routed daemon is running by issuing the following command:
# /bin/ps ax | grep routed If the routed daemon is running, kill the process by issuing the /bin/kill command with the process ID (PID) for the daemon obtained by using the /bin/ps command.

If you disable the routed daemon, it is not started automatically by the /sbin/init.d/route script each time you restart the network or reboot the system. To disable the routed daemon, perform the following steps: Use the following rcmgr command to disable the routed daemon:

# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set ROUTED no If the routed daemon flags are set, you can reset the flags in the /etc/rc.config file by issuing the following rcmgr command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set ROUTED_FLAGS "" See the routed(8) reference page for more information.
 

Running the gated Daemon

The gated daemon automatically updates the internal routing tables in your host. It can do this using multiple routing protocols. Running the gated daemon is optional.

Note

You cannot run both the routed daemon and the gated daemon on your system.

 

Starting and Enabling the gated Daemon

To start the gated daemon, perform the following steps: If the network is started, check to see whether the gated daemon is running by issuing the following command:
# /bin/ps ax | grep gated The /etc/gated.conf file contains configuration information that is read by the gated daemon. If the /etc/gated.conf file does not exist, set it up in the format specified in the gated.conf(4) reference page.
If the /etc/gated.conf file exists, you can modify it if needed.
If the gated daemon is running when you modify the /etc/gated.conf file, the gated daemon detects the changes and they take effect immediately. Otherwise, the changes take effect when you manually start the gated daemon. If you want to add static routes, use the procedure in the Adding Static Routes section in this reference page. If the network is started and the gated daemon is not running, you can start it with or without flags.
To start the gated daemon without flags, issue the following command:
# /usr/sbin/gated To start the gated daemon with flags, include the flags in the command line, separating each flag with a space. For example, the following command starts the gated daemon with the -r flag, which causes the gated daemon to log all routing changes:
# /usr/sbin/gated -r For more information, see the gated(8) reference page.

If you enable the gated daemon, it is started automatically by the /sbin/init.d/gateway script each time the network is restarted or the system is rebooted. To enable the gated daemon, perform the following steps: Use the following rcmgr command to enable the gated daemon:

# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set GATED yes Check to see if the gated daemon flags are set in the /etc/rc.config file by using the following rcmgr command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr get GATED_FLAGS If flags are set and you do not want any gated daemon flags, reset the flags in the /etc/rc.config file by using the following rcmgr command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set GATED_FLAGS "" If you want to change the gated daemon flags, reset the flags in the /etc/rc.config file by using the rcmgr command. Enclose the flags in double quotation marks and separate each flag with a space.
See the gated(8) reference page for more information.
 

Stopping and Disabling the gated Daemon

To stop the gated daemon, perform the following steps: Check to see if the gated daemon is running by issuing the following command:
# /bin/ps ax | grep gated If the gated daemon is running, kill the process by issuing the /bin/kill command with the process ID (PID) for the daemon obtained by using the /bin/ps command.

If you disable the gated daemon, it is not started automatically by the /sbin/init.d/gateway script each time you restart the network or reboot the system. To disable the gated daemon, perform the following steps: Use the following rcmgr command to disable the gated daemon:

# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set GATED no If gated daemon flags are set, you can reset the flags in the /etc/rc.config file by using the following rcmgr command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set GATED_FLAGS ""
See the gated(8) reference page for more information.
 

Running the writesrv Daemon

The writesrv daemon receives remote write command requests. Running writesrv is optional; however, it must be running to use the following options with the write command: -h -q -r  

Starting and Enabling the writesrv Daemon

To start the writesrv daemon, perform the following steps: If the network is started, check to see if the writesrv daemon is running by issuing the following command:
# /bin/ps ax | grep writesrv If the network is started and the writesrv daemon is not running, enter the following command to start the writesrv daemon in the background:
# /usr/sbin/writesrv

If you enable the writesrv daemon, it is started automatically by the /sbin/init.d/write script each time the network is restarted or the system is rebooted. Use the rcmgr command to modify the entry for the writesrv daemon in the /etc/rc.config file:

# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set WRITESRV yes
 

Stopping and Disabling the writesrv Daemon

To stop the writesrv daemon, perform the following steps: Check to see if the writesrv daemon is running by issuing the following command:
# /bin/ps ax | grep writesrv If the writesrv daemon is running, kill the process by issuing the /bin/kill command with the process ID (PID) for the daemon obtained by using the /bin/ps command.

If you disable the writesrv daemon, it is not started automatically by the /sbin/init.d/write script each time you restart the network or reboot the system. Use the following rcmgr command to disable the writesrv daemon in the /etc/rc.config file:

# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set WRITESRV no

For more information, see the writesrv(8) reference page.  

Setting Up an IP Router

An IP router (also called a gateway) connects two or more local area networks (LANs). A router allows data to be transferred between systems on the networks to which it is connected.

To set up an IP router, perform the following steps: Configure the network interfaces on your system by using the procedure in the Configuring Network Interfaces section in this reference page. Set the global variables ipforwarding and ipgateway in the running kernel by issuing the following command:

# /usr/sbin/iprsetup -s Set the value of ROUTER in the /etc/rc.config file to indicate that your system is set up as an IP router by issuing the following rcmgr command:
# /usr/sbin/rcmgr set ROUTER yes
 

Adding Static Routes

If the network is started, you can use the /usr/sbin/route command to add a route immediately. The format of the /usr/sbin/route command is as follows:

/usr/sbin/route add {-net | -host} destination [-interface] gateway

Specifies the destination is a network. Specifies the destination is a host. Specifies the name or IP address of the destination host or network. Specifies the keyword default when adding a default gateway. Optionally, specifies that the route is through an interface. Specifies the name or IP address of the gateway or interface.

See the route(8) reference page for more information.

A route that you add with the /usr/sbin/route command is in effect until you reboot the system, restart the network, or issue the /usr/sbin/route flush command. If you want the route to be established each time you reboot the system or restart the network, you must add an entry to the /etc/routes file. When the network restarts, the /sbin/init.d/route script runs and executes the /usr/sbin/route add command for each entry in the /etc/routes file.

The format for an entry in the /etc/routes file is described in routes(4).  

Adding Hosts to the /etc/hosts File

The /etc/hosts file contains the names and addresses of other hosts on your network to which you want to connect. If your network currently uses or will be set up to use either the Network Information Service (NIS, formerly YP) or the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) service to distribute host information, you do not need a complete listing of all hosts on your network in your /etc/hosts file. However, you should include the names and addresses of hosts that are (or will be) designated as servers for those services.

The format of an entry in the /etc/hosts file is as follows:

IP_address host1 [alias_1 ... alias_n] [# comment]

The following is a sample /etc/hosts file: # @(#n)hosts 1.0 (Digital UNIX) # # Description: The hosts file associates host names with # IP addresses. # # Syntax: nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn hostname.domain.name [alias_1,...,\ # alias_n] [#comments] # # nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn The IP address of the host. # hostname.domain.name The fully qualified host name, including # the domain name. # alias_n Other names or abbreviations for this host. # #comments Text following the comment character (#) # is ignored. # 127.0.0.1 localhost 120.105.5.1 host1.cities.dec.com h1 120.105.5.2 host2.cities.dec.com h2 120.105.5.3 host3.cities.dec.com h3 #BIND server 120.105.5.4 host4.cities.dec.com h4 #BIND server 120.105.5.5 host5.cities.dec.com h5

See the hosts(4) reference page for more information.

Note

If you change the IP address or host name in the /etc/hosts file associated with any network interfaces you have configured, you might need to change the IP address or host name on the corresponding IFCONFIG_n line in the /etc/rc.config file.

 

Adding Hosts to the /etc/hosts.equiv File

Users on a host specified in the /etc/hosts.equiv file can log in to your system without password verification, if they have a valid account on your system. You can restrict access to your system without password verification to specific users by specifying a host and a user name in the /etc/hosts.equiv file.

The format of the /etc/hosts.equiv file is as follows:

host1 host2 user1

The following is a sample /etc/hosts.equiv file: # @(#)hosts.equiv 1.0 (Digital UNIX) # # Description: The hosts.equiv file contains a list of # trusted hosts. # # Warning: Listing hosts in this file can compromise system # security. Include host names and user names in # this file with caution. # # Syntax: host1 [username] # # host1 Name of a host considered trusted by the # local system. # [username] Individual user who can log in to the local # system without supplying a password. # host1 host2 diane host2 charlotte host2 kate

In the preceding example, all users with accounts on host1 can log in to the local system without specifying a password. Users diane, charlotte, and kate on host2 can log in to the local system without specifying a password. For more information on the /etc/hosts.equiv file, see the hosts.equiv(4) reference page.  

Adding Network Names to the /etc/networks File

The /etc/networks file allows the netstat command to translate network numbers into network names. If you do not enter network names into the /etc/networks file, the netstat command displays network numbers instead of network names. Entries in the /etc/networks file have the following format:

name number [alias_1 ... alias_n] [# comment]

The following is a sample /etc/networks file: # @(#)networks 1.0     (Digital UNIX)
# # Description:  The networks file lists the known networks in the
#               Internet.
# # Syntax: network_name network_number [ alias_1 ... alias_n ] [ #comment ] # # network_name  Name of the network supplied by the network
#               administrator.
# network_number Network number assigned to the network by the NIC. # alias_n        One or more other names or abbreviations for this network.
# #comments      Text following the comment character (#) is ignored.
# loop            127     loopback
ethernet1       98      doconet
ethernet2       100     devonet
See the networks(4) reference page for more information.

Note

If your network is running NIS, the networks database is distributed. If the networks database is distributed, you must edit the master copy of the networks database in the /var/yp/src directory on the NIS master servers and remake the maps for it. For information about updating and remaking NIS maps, see the Network Administration manual.

 

Starting the Network

After you set up the network, you can start the network by using the rcinet command.

If the network is stopped, start the network by entering the following command:

# /usr/sbin/rcinet start If the network is already started, warn the network users on your system in advance that the network on your system is being restarted. File systems that were not mounted using the /etc/fstab file or the automount command must be unmounted with the unmount command (see the mount(8) reference page). You must remount these file systems after the network is restarted.

Restart the network by entering the following command:

# /usr/sbin/rcinet restart See the rcinet(8) reference page for more information.

Alternatively, you can start the network by rebooting the system with the following command:

# shutdown -r now The -r option specifies an automatic reboot.  

RELATED INFORMATION

gated(8), ifconfig(8), netconfig(8X), netstat(1), slattach(8), routes(4), and routed(8)

Network Administration delim off


 

Index

NAME
DESCRIPTION
Configuring Network Interfaces
Enabling and Disabling Network Daemons
Running the rwhod Daemon
Starting and Enabling the rwhod Daemon
Stopping and Disabling the rwhod Daemon
Running the routed Daemon
Starting and Enabling the routed Daemon
Stopping and Disabling the routed Daemon
Running the gated Daemon
Starting and Enabling the gated Daemon
Stopping and Disabling the gated Daemon
Running the writesrv Daemon
Starting and Enabling the writesrv Daemon
Stopping and Disabling the writesrv Daemon
Setting Up an IP Router
Adding Static Routes
Adding Hosts to the /etc/hosts File
Adding Hosts to the /etc/hosts.equiv File
Adding Network Names to the /etc/networks File
Starting the Network
RELATED INFORMATION

This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 02:40:19 GMT, October 02, 2010