Content-type: text/html Man page of ldterm

ldterm

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NAME

ldterm - STREAMS line discipline module  

DESCRIPTION

The ldterm module is a STREAMS module that supplies the line discipline for terminal devices. This module provides most of the functions of the terminal interface described in the /usr/include/termios.h and /usr/include/termio.h header files for session management, and input and output processing. However, it does not perform the low-level device control functions specified by the c_cflag word and control the speeds defined by the termios structure in the termios.h header file. Also, some operations require the cooperation of the modules and drivers pushed below the ldterm module in the tty or pty stream.

Internally, the ldterm module uses the Extended UNIX Code (EUC) character encoding scheme. This encoding scheme enables the module to process multibyte characters as well as simple 8-bit characters. It correctly handles backspacing and tab expansion for multibyte characters.

The ldterm module provides standard terminal operation consistent with the behavior specified by POSIX 1003.1. It also provides compatibility with the behavior of the BSD line discipline module used in Tru64 UNIX (see the tty reference page), including System V Interface Definition (SVID) compatibility.  

STREAMS Messages

The ldterm module processes various types of STREAMS messages. The line discipline will act on any of the following message types. Any others that the module receives, however, are passed on to the next module.  

Read Put Routine

The ldterm read put routine processes the following STREAMS messages: If FLUSHR is set, the read put routine flushes the read queue, discards characters in the input message buffers, and discards any partially buffered multibyte characters. Then, it forwards the message upstream. The read put routine processes the message according to POSIX rules for processing BREAK events, parity errors, and framing errors. If there is no data in the message, the message is assumed to represent an input BREAK event, which is represented by a framing error with a character value of 0 (zero). If there is data in the message, the data value is an integer that indicates the occurrence of an input BREAK event, or a character received with a parity or framing error. The low-order 8 bits of the data value is the byte that was read. If the TTY_PE flag is set in the higher-order bits of this integer, then a parity error was detected. If the TTY_FE flag is set in the higher-order bits of this integer, a framing error was detected.

After reading the data value, the read put routine discards the message. The read put routine processes the message according to the POSIX 1003.1 specification, using multibyte processing for tab expansion and backspacing, as appropriate.

It generates echo characters and places them in the output buffer to be sent downstream to the write queue. While processing incoming data, it scans for START and STOP characters and sends M_START/M_STOP messages downstream to the write queue, if needed.

The read queue high-water mark is POSIX_MAX_INPUT/2 and the low-water mark is POSIX_MAX_INPUT/5. If the total number of buffered input characters is more than the high-water mark and IXOFF is set, the read put routine sends an M_STOPI message downstream. When the queue reduces its backlog below the low water mark, it sends an M_STARTI message downstream.

If the number of buffered input characters reaches POSIX_MAX_INPUT, and the IMAXBEL flag is set, the read put routine discards new input characters and sends a BEL character (Ctrl-G) downstream. If IMAXBEL is not set, it flushes the input queue.

If the ISIG flag is set, the read put routine sends M_PCSIG messages upstream when the appropriate signal characters are encountered. Then, it discards the characters.

If a character matching c_cc[VDISCARD] is encountered, and the IEXTEN flag is set, the read put routine sends an M_FLUSH (FLUSHW) message upstream to flush all write queues. The M_FLUSH message is reflected by the stream head and sent downstream through all the write queues.

If the character signifies the logical termination of input, the read put routine sends the currently buffered characters upstream to the stream head.

Logical termination of input depends on the state of the ICANON flag. If ICANON is set, the ldterm module is in canonical input mode. In that case, the read put routine logically terminates input at the end of a line of input. Canonical line termination characters are NEWLINE, EOF, EOL, and EOL2.

If ICANON is clear, the ldterm discipline module is in noncanonical or raw input mode. In that case, the read put routine terminates input when at least VMIN bytes are present in the input message buffer or the timer specified by VTIME expires. If the message acknowledges the termios TIOCGETA command, the read put routine copies the c_cflag and speeds information, which is sent by the console driver downstream, from the message into the internal termios structure. Then, it copies the internal termios structure into the message.

If the message acknowledges one of the termios set commands TIOCSETA, TIOCSETAW, or TIOCSETAF, the read put routine copies all of the data from the message into the internal termios structure.

If the message acknowledges an TIOCOUTQ command, the read put routine records the number of bytes in the ldterm module's internal output buffer in the message and forwards the message upstream.

After this processing is done, the read put routine determines if the I/O control command was originally a BSD or System V I/O control command that was converted to a termios command by the write service routine. If so, it restores the original data so that the message acknowledges the original I/O control command. Then, it forwards the message upstream.  

Write Service Routine

The ldterm write service routine processes messages that may be delayed due to STREAMS flow control. This message was sent by the driver to communicate changes in the driver's state. In the STREAMS tty and pty subsystems, the structure of M_CTL messages is the same as that of M_IOCTL messages. The M_CTL message block points to a message buffer containing an iocblk data structure. The ioc_cmd member of this structure contains a command, just as it does in an M_IOCTL message. The b_cont member of the M_CTL message block contains a pointer to an M_DATA message block, which contains data associated with the M_CTL message.

The read put routine processes M_CTL messages containing the following commands: The driver sends this message to reflect an asynchronous change in its winsz structure settings. The read put service routine copies the winsz structure into its internal structure. It then frees the associated M_CTL message using the freemsg function. The driver sends this message to reflect an asynchronous change in its termios flag settings.

The read put service copies the termios structure from the attached M_DATA message block into its internal termios structure. Then, it frees the associated M_CTL message using the freemsg() function.  

Write Put Routine

The ldterm write put routine processes the following STREAMS messages. Messages not listed here are simply forwarded downstream. If FLUSHW is set, the write put routine flushes the write queue and discards any buffered output data. Then, it forwards the message downstream. The write put routine queues the message to the write queue for later processing. The write put routine validates the format of the M_IOCTL message and checks for known commands. If the message format is invalid, it turns the M_IOCTL message into an M_IOCNAK message, and returns the message upstream. If the I/O control command is not recognized, it forwards the M_IOCTL message downstream for processing by other modules.

The write put routine determines if the command is one that must be processed in the proper sequence relative to M_DATA messages. If so, it queues the M_IOCTL message to the write queue for later processing by the write service routine. Commands that require processing in sequence are as follows: TIOCSETAW TIOCSETAF TCSETAW TCSETAF TCSBRK

Otherwise, the module's write put routine processes the command immediately. Detailed descriptions of the preceding ioctl commands are provided in the The ioctl Commands section. This message is sent by the stream head to notify downstream modules when an application has issued a read request and there is not enough data queued at the stream head to satisfy the request. The M_READ message contains the number of characters requested by the application.

If the module is in noncanonical input mode, and VTIME is positive, the write put routine starts an input timer. When the timer expires, it sends all buffered input upstream. Then, it forwards the M_READ message downstream. The write service routine processes the data according to the POSIX 1003.1 specification output flags. It sends the processed characters downstream to the driver when the output queue fills up and all of the data is processed. Some I/O control commands must wait until output drains before they are processed. M_IOCTL messages containing these commands are queued on the write queue so that the write service routine processes them in the correct sequence relative to preceding data. A list of these commands is provided in the Write Put Routine section. Processing of the individual I/O control commands is described in the The ioctl Commands section of this reference page and in the tty and termios reference pages.  

The ioctl Commands

The ldterm module acts on three categories of ioctl commands: Primary I/O control commands BSD4.3 compatibility I/O control commands System V Interface Definition compatibility I/O control commands  

Primary I/O Control Commands

The ldterm module acts on the following primary I/O commands: The ldterm module does nothing but reply to this command. In a BSD system, the command is used to set the current line discipline type. It does not have much meaning in a STREAMS environment, because line discipline modules are changed by popping the current module from the stream and pushing a different one onto the stream. In a BSD system, this command is used to get the current line discipline type. The command does not have much meaning in a STREAMS environment. The ldterm module replies with a value of 0 (zero). The ldterm module generates M_FLUSH messages and flushes the appropriate internal message buffers. Then, it acknowledges the message with M_IOCACK. The ldterm module sets or resets the TS_ASYNC state. Then, it forwards the message to the next module. When the ldterm module receives this command in an M_IOCTL message, it forwards the command downstream. When the module receives the M_IOCACK message in the read queue, it adds the number of characters in the output buffer to the reply value in the M_IOCACK message and forwards the message upstream. When the ldterm module receives any of these commands in an M_IOCTL message, it forwards them downstream. When it receives the M_IOCACK message in the read queue, it copies the POSIX termios information from the message into the internal termios structure and forwards the message upstream. The ldterm module forwards the M_IOCTL message downstream. When it receives the M_IOCACK message in the read queue, it copies the CLOCAL flags and speeds from the message into the internal termios structure. Then, it copies the entire structure into the M_IOCACK message and forwards the message upstream. This command sets the window size variable. The ldterm module does not use this variable, but maintains it here for any needed replies to TIOCGWINSZ commands. The module forwards the message downstream. When the ldterm module receives this command, it returns the window size variable that was last set by the last TIOCSWINSZ command. This command sets the termios HUPCL flag to indicate that the terminal line should be disconnected when the last file descriptor associated with that line is closed. The ldterm module converts the command into a compatible termios I/O control command by sending an M_IOCTL message containing the TIOCSETA command with current termios settings downstream. This command stops output. The ldterm module sends an M_STOP message downstream. The command restarts output. If the terminal was stopped, the ldterm module sends an M_START message downstream. This command sets the EUC character widths. The ldterm module forwards the message to the next module. This command returns the EUC character widths. This command set the break condition on a line. The ldterm module sends an M_BREAK message containing a value of 1 as data to the driver, then replies with M_IOCACK. This command clears the break condition on a line. The ldterm module sends an M_BREAK message containing a value of 0 (zero) as data to the driver, then replies with M_IOCACK.  

BSD4.3 Compatible I/O Commands

The ldterm module acts on the following I/O commands, which are compatible with the BSD I/O environment: This command retrieves the hardware bits of the sgttyb control structure. The ldterm module converts the message to a termios M_IOCTL so that the driver does not have to know about the sgttyb control structure. Then it forwards the termios M_IOCTL message to the driver. The original I/O control command and M_IOCTL message are stored for use on the M_IOCACK message. These commands set the sgttyb information. The ldterm module converts the message to a termios M_IOCTL so that the driver does not have to know about the BSD or System V I/O control structures. Then, it forwards the termios M_IOCTL message with a corresponding termios command. The original I/O control command and M_IOCTL message are stored for use on the M_IOCACK message. The ldterm module returns the tchars information in a termios structure. This command sets the tchars information. The ldterm module converts the message to a termios M_IOCTL so that the driver does not have to know about the BSD or System V I/O control structures. Then, it forwards the termios M_IOCTL message with a corresponding termios command. The original I/O control command and M_IOCTL message are stored for use on the M_IOCACK message. The ldterm module returns the ltchars information in a termios structure. This command sets the ltchars information. The ldterm module converts the message to a termios M_IOCTL so that the driver does not have to know about the BSD or System V I/O control structures. Then, it forwards the termios M_IOCTL message with a corresponding termios command. The original I/O control command and M_IOCTL message are stored for use on the M_IOCACK message. The ldterm module returns the BSD4.3 flags information in a termios structure. These commands set the BSD4.3 flags information. The ldterm module converts the message to a termios M_IOCTL, then forwards the termios M_IOCTL message with a corresponding termios command. It stores the original I/O control command and M_IOCTL message to be used on the M_IOCACK message. This I/O control command is meaningless in a STREAMS environment. The ldterm module replies with a value of 0 (zero). This I/O control command is meaningless in a STREAMS environment. The ldterm module does nothing and replies.  

System V Interface Definition Compatibility I/O Commands

The ldterm module acts on the following I/O commands, which are compatible with the SVID I/O environment: This command results in the same action as TIOCSTOP or TIOCSTART, depending on the argument. This command has the same behavior as the TIOCFLUSH command. The ldterm module converts the command to a termios M_IOCTL message, then forwards the message with the TIOCGETA command. The original I/O control command and M_IOCTL message are stored to be used on the M_IOCACK message. When it receives the matching M_IOCACK message, the ldterm module processes it as for a TIOCGETA command, then converts the termios information into the System V termio information and replies. These commands set the System V termio information. The ldterm module converts the command to a termios M_IOCTL message, then forwards the message with a corresponding termios command. The original I/O control command and M_IOCTL message are stored for use on the M_IOCACK message. The ldterm module forwards this command downstream to be handled by the driver.  

RELATED INFORMATION

File: termios(4). Interfaces: eucioctl(7), tty(7). delim off


 

Index

NAME
DESCRIPTION
STREAMS Messages
Read Put Routine
Write Service Routine
Write Put Routine
The ioctl Commands
Primary I/O Control Commands
BSD4.3 Compatible I/O Commands
System V Interface Definition Compatibility I/O Commands
RELATED INFORMATION

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Time: 02:40:19 GMT, October 02, 2010