Content-type: text/html Man page of getespwent


Section: C Library Functions (3)
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getespwent, getespwuid, getespwnam, setprpwent, endprpwent, putespwnam - Manipulate protected password database entry (Enhanced Security)  


Security Library

NOTE: In order to quickstart a program, the program must be linked as follows:

-lsecurity -ldb -laud -lm

See the shared library discussion in the Programmer's Guide for more information about using the quickstarting feature.  


#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/security.h>
#include <prot.h>

struct es_passwd *getespwent(void);

struct es_passwd *getespwent(void);

struct es_passwd *getespwuid(
       int uid);

struct es_passwd *getespwnam(
       char *name);

void setprpwent(void);

void endprpwent(void);

int putespwnam(
       char *name,

       struct es_passwd *pr );



Specifies the user ID in the protected password database. Specifies a protected password database entry name. Specifies a protected password database entry structure.  


The getespwent(), getespwuid() and getespwnam() functions each return a pointer to an object with the following structure containing the broken-out fields of a line in the protected password database. Each line in the database contains a es_passwd structure, declared in the prot.h header file as follows: /* Values for the "source" field in the escap prologue */

struct espw_field {
        /* Identity: */
   char    *fd_name;
   uid_t   fd_uid;         /* uid associated with name above */
   char    *fd_encrypt;    /* Encrypted password */
   char    *fd_owner;      /* if a pseudo -user, the user behind it */
   int     fd_nice;        /* nice value with which to login */
   mask_t  *fd_cprivs;     /* command authorization vector */
   priv_t *fd_sprivs;      /* kernel authorizations vector */
   priv_t *fd_bprivs;      /* base privilege vector */
   char    *fd_auditdisp;  /* auditmask text */
   uint_t  fd_auditcntl;   /* audit mask use control */

   /* Password maintenance parameters: */
   time_t  fd_min;         /* minimum time between password changes */
   int     fd_minlen;      /* minimum length of password */
   int     fd_maxlen;      /* maximum length of password */
   time_t  fd_expire;      /* soft expiration interval (seconds) */
   time_t  fd_lifetime;    /* hard expiration interval (seconds) */
   time_t  fd_schange;     /* last success change in secs past 1/1/70 */
   time_t  fd_uchange;     /* last unsuccessful change */
   char    fd_pick_pwd;    /* can user pick his own passwords? */
   char    fd_gen_pwd;     /* can user get passwords gen. for him? */
   char    fd_restrict;    /* should gen. passwords be restricted? */
   char    fd_policy;      /* check passwords by policy callout ? */
   char    fd_nullpw;      /* is user allowed a null password? */
   uid_t   fd_pwchanger;   /* who last changed this user's password */
   char    fd_gen_chars;   /* can have password of random ASCII? */
   char    fd_gen_letters; /* can have password of random letters? */
   int     fd_pwdepth;     /* depth of password dictionary to keep */
   char    *fd_pwdict;     /* password history dictionary */
   uchar_t fd_oldcrypt;    /* algorithm index for current crypt func */
   uchar_t fd_newcrypt;    /* algorithm index for next crypt func */

   /* Mandatory policy parameters: */
   mand_ir_t *fd_clearance; /* internal representation of clearance */
   /* Login parameters: */
   time_t  fd_slogin;      /* last successful login */
   time_t  fd_ulogin;      /* last unsuccessful login */
   char    *fd_suctty;     /* tty of last successful login */
   int     fd_nlogins;     /* consecutive unsuccessful logins */
   char    *fd_unsuctty;   /* tty of last unsuccessful login */
   char    *fd_tod;        /* times when user may login */
   int     fd_max_tries;   /* maximum unsuc login tries allowed */
   time_t  fd_unlockint;   /* interval (secs) before unlocking again */
   char    fd_retired;     /* Is account retired? */
   char    fd_lock;        /* Unconditionally lock account? */
   time_t  fd_expdate;     /* time to auto-retire the account */
   char    fd_istemplate;  /* this account is a template only */
   char    *fd_template;   /* name of (template) account for defaults */
   time_t  fd_vac_start;   /* time of user's scheduled vacation */
   time_t  fd_vac_end;     /* time when password policy is actived */
   ulong_t fd_rlim_cpu;    /* RLIMIT_CPU rlim_max for setrlimit */
   ulong_t fd_rlim_fsize;  /* RLIMIT_FSIZE rlim_max for setrlimit */
   ulong_t fd_rlim_data;   /* RLIMIT_DATA rlim_max for setrlimit */
   ulong_t fd_rlim_stack;  /* RLIMIT_STACK rlim_max for setrlimit */
   ulong_t fd_rlim_core;   /* RLIMIT_CORE rlim_max for setrlimit */
   ulong_t fd_rlim_rss;    /* RLIMIT_RSS rlim_max for setrlimit */
   ulong_t fd_rlim_nofile; /* RLIMIT_NOFILE rlim_max for setrlimit */
   ulong_t fd_rlim_vmem;   /* RLIMIT_VMEM rlim_max for setrlimit */
   time_t  fd_max_login_int; /* max time between logins before lockout */
   time_t  fd_grace_limit; /* you have until this time to fix things */
   char    fd_psw_chg_reqd; /* password change required */ };

struct espw_flag {
    unsigned int
        /* Identity: */
        fg_name:1,              /* Is fd_name set? */
        fg_uid:1,               /* Is fd_uid set? */
        fg_encrypt:1,           /* Is fd_encrypt set? */
        fg_owner:1,             /* Is fd_owner set? */
        fg_nice:1,              /* Is fd_nice set? */
        fg_cprivs:1,            /* Is fd_sprivs set? */
        fg_sprivs:1,            /* Is fd_sprivs set? */
        fg_bprivs:1,            /* Is fd_bprivs set? */
        fg_auditcntl:1,         /* Is fd_auditcntl set? */
        fg_auditdisp:1,         /* Is fd_auditdisp set? */

        /* Password maintenance parameters: */
        fg_min:1,               /* Is fd_min set? */
        fg_minlen:1,            /* Is fd_minlen set? */
        fg_maxlen:1,            /* Is fd_maxlen set? */
        fg_expire:1,            /* Is fd_expire set? */
        fg_lifetime:1,          /* Is fd_lifetime set? */
        fg_schange:1,           /* Is fd_schange set? */
        fg_uchange:1,           /* Is fd_fchange set? */
        fg_pick_pwd:1,          /* Is fd_pick_pwd set? */
        fg_gen_pwd:1,           /* Is fd_gen_pwd set? */
        fg_restrict:1,          /* Is fd_restrict set? */
        fg_policy:1,            /* Is fd_policy set? */
        fg_nullpw:1,            /* Is fd_nullpw set? */
        fg_pwchanger:1,         /* Is fd_pwchanger set? */
        fg_pwdepth:1,           /* Is fd_pwdepth set? */
        fg_pwdict:1,            /* Is fd_pwdict set? */
        fg_gen_chars:1,         /* Is fd_gen_chars set? */
        fg_gen_letters:1,       /* Is fd_gen_letters set? */
        fg_oldcrypt:1,          /* Is fd_oldcrypt set? */
        fg_newcrypt:1,          /* Is fd_newcrypt set? */
           /* Login parameters: */
        fg_slogin:1,            /* Is fd_slogin set? */
        fg_suctty: 1,           /* is fd_suctty set ? */
        fg_unsuctty: 1,         /* is fd_unsuctty set ? */
        fg_ulogin:1,            /* Is fd_ulogin set? */
        fg_nlogins:1,           /* Is fd_nlogins set? */
        fg_max_tries:1,         /* Is fd_max_tries set? */
        fg_retired:1,           /* Is fd_retired set? */
        fg_lock:1,              /* Is fd_lock set? */
        fg_unlockint:1,         /* Is fd_unlockint set? */
        fg_tod:1,               /* Is fd_tod set? */
        fg_expdate:1,           /* Is fd_expdate set? */
        fg_istemplate:1,        /* Is fd_istemplate set? */
        fg_template:1,          /* Is fd_template set? */
        fg_vac_start:1,         /* Is fd_vac_start set? */
        fg_vac_end:1,           /* Is fd_vac_end set? */
        fg_rlim_cpu:1,          /* Is fd_rlim_cpu set? */
        fg_rlim_fsize:1,        /* Is fd_rlim_fsize set? */
        fg_rlim_data:1,         /* Is fd_rlim_data set? */
        fg_rlim_stack:1,        /* Is fd_rlim_stack set? */
        fg_rlim_core:1,         /* Is fd_rlim_core set? */
        fg_rlim_rss:1,          /* Is fd_rlim_rss set? */
        fg_rlim_nofile:1,       /* Is fd_rlim_nofile set? */
        fg_rlim_vmem:1,         /* Is fd_rlim_vmem set? */
        fg_max_login_int:1,     /* Is fd_max_login_int set? */
        fg_grace_limit:1,       /* Is fd_grace_limit set? */
        fg_psw_chg_reqd:1       /* Is fd_psw_chg_reqd set? */
        ; };

struct es_passwd {
   AUTH_ESCAP_COMMON            /* overhead fields */
   size_t             fieldlen; /* length of 1 of our field structs */
   struct espw_field  *ufld;    /* Fields assoc with this user */
   struct espw_flag   *uflg;    /* Flags assoc with this user */
   struct espw_field  *sfld;    /* Fields assoc with system */
   struct espw_flag   *sflg;    /* Flags assoc with system */ }; typedef struct es_passwd es_profile;

The protected password database stores user authentication profiles. The es_passwd structure in the user-specific entry refers to parameters specific to a user, while the es_passwd structure in the system default database sets parameters that are used when there is no user-specific override. The user-specific entry is keyed on the fd_name field, which is a cross reference to the /etc/passwd entry for the user. The fd_uid field must match the UID in that file as well. The balance of the fields are defined as follows:

The encrypted password.
This field is reserved for future use.
Sets the nice() value of the login shell.
The command authorizations vector for the user. This field is reserved for future use.
Stores the user's kernel authorizations. This field is reserved for future use.
Stores the user's base privileges. The fd_sprivs filed must be a superset of fd_bprivs. This field is reserved for future use.
The time, in seconds, that must elapse before the user can change passwords.
The maximum password length (in characters) for the user.
The time, in seconds, between the successful password change and the password expiration time.
The number of seconds that must elapse after a successful password change before the password dies. The account is considered locked if the password is dead.
fd_schange and fd_uchange
The last successful and unsuccessful password change times.
Text string representing the audit mask to use for this entry.
Audit mask user control (AUD_OR, etc., from <sys/audit.h>.
Minimum length of a password, if non-zero. A value of 0 for fd_minlen indicates that a calculated minimum should be used, based on the other password generation parameters. To allow passwords of lengths 0 and up, set this field to 1 and set fd_nullpw.
Flag determining that the site password policy callout should be consulted to determine whether a given password is acceptable (whether as the result of password generation or from user input). fd_policy goes with fd_restrict.
Number of old encrypted passwords to keep in the password dictionary. If zero, the current password is still not eligible for re-use.
A comma-separated list of old encrypted passwords, which are not eligible for re-use.
Encryption algorithm index associated with the current encrypted password in fd_encrypt. For use with the dispcrypt() function in password validation.
The desired encryption algorithm to be used to encode the next password which gets set for this user. For use with the dispcrypt() function in password setting.
Seconds after fd_ulogin when fd_nlogins is ignored for determining whether the account is locked, if this field is non-zero.
Timestamp, from time(), of when the account is no longer considered valid for logging in to.
Flag for whether this account is a template account only. Template accounts are not allowed to log in, and may not have associated entries in the /etc/passwd file.
Name of a template account for default fields, in preference to those in /etc/auth/system/default.
Timestamp of when the user's vacation begins.
Timestamp of when the user's vacation is over.
RLIMIT_CPU rlim_max for the setrlimit() call during login.
RLIMIT_FSIZE rlim_max for the setrlimit() call during login.
RLIMIT_DATA rlim_max for the setrlimit() call during login.
RLIMIT_STACK rlim_max for the setrlimit() call during login.
RLIMIT_CORE rlim_max for the setrlimit() call during login.
RLIMIT_RSS rlim_max for the setrlimit() call during login.
RLIMIT_NOFILE rlim_max for the setrlimit() call during login.
RLIMIT_VMEM rlim_max for the setrlimit() call during login.
The maximum inter-login interval allowed (in seconds) before considering the account to be locked. If zero, there is no limit.
Timestamp, if set and non-zero, of a time limit for letting the user log in despite anything which the locked_out_es() function describes as locking out a user.
Flag indicating that the user must change his or her password during the next login before it can succeed, even if it has not yet (otherwise) expired.

The following flag fields control password generation (the term "set" means anything non-zero and the term "not set" means zero):

If set, allows the user to pick his or her own password.
If set, allows the account to be used without a password.
Enables the use of the random pronounceable password generator for passwords for this account.
fd_gen_chars and fd_gen_letters
Allows the password generator to generate passwords composed of random printable characters and random letters, which are not easy to remember. The password change software allows the user to pick from whichever options are available for their accounts.
The user ID of the user who last changed the password on the user's account, if it was not the account owner.
If set, causes triviality checks to be made after the account password has been chosen, to avoid palindromes, user name and machine name permutations, and words appearing in the dictionary.
A string, formatted like the UUCP systems file, which specifies time intervals, during which the user may log in. The following fields are used to protect against login spoofing, listing the time and location of last login:
fd_slogin and fd_ulogin
Timestamps of the last successful and unsuccessful login attempts.
fd_suctty and fd_unsuctty
The terminal device or host (if supported) names of the terminal or host from which the last login attempt occurred.
The number of unsuccessful login attempts since the last successful login. It is reset to zero after a successful login.
The number of unsuccessful attempts until the account is considered locked.
Indicates whether the administrative lock on the account is set. See the locked_out_es(3) reference page for more detailed information.
An indicator of whether the account has been retired. Once retired, the user ID and name may not be reused.

When the getespwent() function is first called, it returns a pointer to the first user es_passwd structure in the database; thereafter, it returns a pointer to the next es_passwd structure in the database, so successive calls can be used to search the database. Note that entries without a corresponding entry in /etc/passwd are skipped. The entries are scanned in the order they appear in /etc/passwd. The getespwuid() function searches from the beginning of the database until a numerical user ID matching uid is found and returns a pointer to the particular structure in which it was found. The getespwnam() function searches from the beginning of the database until a login name matching name is found, and returns a pointer to the particular structure in which it was found. If an end-of-file or an error is encountered on reading, these functions return a null pointer.

A call to setprpwent() has the effect of rewinding the protected password database to allow repeated searches. The endprpwent() function may be called to close the protected password database when processing is complete.

The putespwnam() function puts a new or replaced protected password entry pr with key name into the database. If the uflg->fg_name field is 0 (zero), the requested entry is deleted from the protected password database. The putespwnam() function locks the database for all update operations, and calls the endprpwent() function after the update or failed attempt.  


The putespwnam() routine can not be used to update the fields in a NIS-distributed protected password database entry.

Programs must call set_auth_parameters() before any other action in main().  


Structures returned by the database routines contain pointers to character strings and lists rather than being self-contained. The copy function must be used rather than doing a structure assignment to save a returned structure.

The value returned by the getespwent() and getespwnam() functions refers to a structure that is overwritten by calls to these functions. To retrieve an entry, modify it, and replace it in the database, you must copy the entry using copyespwent() and supply the modified buffer to putespwnam().

Programs using these functions must be compiled with -lsecurity.

The getespwent() function assumes one name per UID and one UID per name. The sequential scan loops between the first two instances of a multiple UID.

A program uses the getpwent() functions to sequentially scan the databases. User program references to password entries obtained using these functions will not be valid after using any of the functions in this reference page.

The policy callout is to a file located at that allows for site-specific security checks. The path to the file is defined by the entry in the file.  


The getespwent(), getespwuid(), and getespwnam() functions return null pointers on EOF or error.

The putespwnam() function returns 0 (zero) if it cannot add or update the entry.

The copyespwent() function returns a pointer, or NULL on (allocation) error.  


System password file Protected password database for UIDs from 0 to 99. Protected password database for UIDs 100 and up. Old protected password database System defaults database General security databases file.  


Functions: getpwent(3), getesdfent(3), locked_out_es(3)

Files: authcap(4), prpasswd(4)

Security delim off




This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 02:40:49 GMT, October 02, 2010