Content-type: text/html Man page of vi

vi

Section: User Commands (1)
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NAME

vi, vedit, view - Edits files with a full screen display  

SYNOPSIS


 

Normal Syntax

vi [-ls] [-R] |[-r] [-c subcommand] [-t tag] [-w number] [-x] [-v] [+[subcommand]] [-] [file...]


 

Read-only Syntax

view [-l] [-R] |[-r] [-t tag] [-c subcommand] [-w number] [-x] [-v] [+[subcommand]] [-] [file...]


 

Novice Version Syntax

vedit [-l] [-R] |[-r] [-t tag] [-w number] [-x] [-v] [-] [file...]

The vi command is a display editor that is based on an underlying line editor (ex).
 

STANDARDS

Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards as follows:

vi:  XPG4, XPG4-UNIX

vedit:  XPG4, XPG4-UNIX

view:  XPG4, XPG4-UNIX

ex:  XPG4, XPG4-UNIX

Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information about industry standards and associated tags.
 

OPTIONS

Performs the specified ex subcommand before editing begins.

This subcommand may actually consist of several commands separated by vertical line (|) characters. Indents appropriately for LISP code, and accepts the (, ), {, }, [, and ] characters (parentheses, braces, and brackets) as text rather than interpreting them as vi subcommands. The LISP modifier is active in open or visual modes. Recovers file after an editor or system crash. If you do not specify a file, vi displays a list of all saved files. [Compaq]  Invokes vi in open mode. (Silent mode.) Sets the readonly option to protect the file against overwriting.
[Compaq]  This option is automatically invoked if you use the view command. Edits the file containing the tag and positions the editor at its definition. To use this option, you must first create a database of function names and their locations using the ctags command. [Compaq]  Invokes the visual editor. When the -v option is specified, an enlarged set of subcommands is available, including screen editing and cursor movement features. This option has no effect when vi is specified, but is honored for compatibility with historical conventions. Sets the default window size to number. This is useful when you use the editor over a low-speed line. [Compaq]  Prompts for an encryption key and then unencrypts the file. If the file specified is not encrypted or an incorrect key is entered, garbled text is displayed. [Compaq]  Suppresses all interactive user feedback. If you use this option, file input/output errors do not generate an error message. Performs the ex subcommand before editing begins. If you do not specify subcommand, the cursor is placed on the last line of the file. This option is obsolescent.
This subcommand may actually consist of several commands separated by vertical line (|) characters.
 

OPERANDS

The file argument specifies the files to be edited. If you supply more than one file on the command line, vi edits each file in the order specified.
 

DESCRIPTION

The ex editor subcommands can be used within the vi editor, because vi is based on ex. The view command is a read-only version of vi; the readonly option is set to protect files during browsing. The vedit command is a version of vi intended for beginners. In it, the report option is set to 1, the showmode option is set, and the novice option (making vedit a line editor, rather than a screen editor) is set. (For more information on these options, see Setting Options.)

When you use vi, changes you make to a file are reflected on your display. The position of the cursor on the display indicates its position within the file. The subcommands affect the file at the cursor position.

[Compaq]  You can encrypt a file using the :X subcommand. Ensure that you remember the encryption key because an easy means to unencrypt a file does not exist. Only the first 6 characters of a key are significant.
 

Limitations of the vi Editor

The maximum limits of the vi editor are as follows: [Compaq]  2048 bytes per line [Compaq]  256 bytes per global command list [Compaq]  128 bytes in the previous inserted and deleted text [Compaq]  128 bytes in a shell escape command [Compaq]  128 bytes in a string-valued option [Compaq]  30 bytes in a tag name [Compaq]  128 map macros with 2048 bytes total.
 

Editing Modes

The vi editor has the following operational modes: When you start the vi editor, it is in Command mode. Any subcommand can be entered from this mode, except commands that can only be used in the Text Input mode (those subcommands that make corrections during text insertion). When subcommands and the other modes end, vi returns to Command mode. Pressing the <Esc> key cancels a partial subcommand. Entered by the a, A, i, I, o, O, cx (where x represents the scope of the subcommand), C, s, S, and R subcommands. After entering one of these commands, you can enter text into the editing buffer at the current cursor position. To return to Command mode, press <Esc> for normal exit or press the Interrupt key sequence to end abruptly. Some subcommands (those with the prefix : (colon), / (slash), ? (question mark), or !!) read input on a line displayed at the bottom of the screen. When you enter the initial character, vi places the cursor at the bottom of the screen, where you enter the remaining characters of the command. Press <Return> to perform the subcommand and enter the Interrupt key sequence to cancel it.

When !! is used, the cursor moves only after the two exclamation points are entered. When : is used, special meaning is given to the following characters if used as counts before a command: All lines, regardless of cursor position Last line Current line
 

Setting Options

The vi editor allows you to customize options so that you can use the editor for a specific task. Use the set command to set or change an option. To view the current setting of all options, enter :set all while in vi Command mode. To view the current setting of options that may be set to a value, enter a line of the form :set option.

Some options are set to a string or a number value; other options are simply turned on or off. To change an option that is set to a value, enter a command in the form :set option=value. To toggle an option that can be set to on or off, enter a line of the form :set option to set it to on or :set nooption to set it to off.

Options can be abbreviated in a set command. The following table lists some of vi's options, along with abbreviations and descriptions:

OptionAbbreviationDescription
[no]autoindentai Indents automatically in Text mode to the indentation on the previous line by using the spacing between tab stops specified by the shiftwidth option. The default is noai. To back the cursor up to the previous tab stop, type <Ctrl-d>. This option is not in effect for global commands.
[no]autoprintap Prints the current line after any command that changes the editing buffer. The default is ap. This option applies only to the last command in a sequence of commands on a single line, and is not in effect for global commands.
[no]autowriteaw Writes the editing buffer to the file automatically before the :n, :ta, <Ctrl-a>, and ! subcommands if the editing buffer was changed since the last write command. The default is noaw.
[no]beautifybf Prevents user from entering control characters (except for tab, newline, and formfeed) in the editing buffer during text entry. The default is nobf. This option does apply to command input.
closepunctcp= The default is cp='".,;)]}.
directorydir= Displays the directory that contains the editing buffer. The default is dir=/var/tmp.
[no]edcompatibleed Retains global (g) and confirms (c) subcommand suffixes during multiple substitutions and causes the read (r) suffix to work like the r subcommand. The default is noed.
[no]errorbellseb Precedes error messages with an <Alert> character. Setting this option off (noeb) does not suppress the alerting in visual mode. The default is noeb.
[no]exrc"! If not set, ignores any .exrc file in the current directory during initialization, unless the current directory is that named by the HOME variable. The default is noexrc.
[no]flashfl Uses visual flash rather than audible bell. The default is fl.
hardtabsht= Tells vi the distance between the hardware tab stops on your display. The default is ht=8.
[no]ignorecaseic Ignores the distinction between uppercase and lowercase while searching for regular expressions. The default is noic.
[no]lisplisp Enters vi in LISP mode. In this mode, vi appropriately indents for LISP code and the (, ), {, }, [[, and ]]. The default is nolisp.
[no]listlist Displays text with tabs and the end of lines marked. Tabs are displayed as ^I and the end of lines as $. The default is nolist.
[no]magicmagic Treats the characters ., [, and * as special characters in scans. In Off mode, only the (, ), and $ characters retain special meanings; however, special meaning of other characters can still be invoked by preceding the character with a \ (backslash). The default is magic.
[no]mesgmesg Permits other users to use the talk or write commands to write to the terminal when in visual mode. The shell level mesg n command takes precedence over the mesg option. If a mesg y command was issued before vi (or ex) was started, set nomesg can be used to suppress message, but a set mesg input can not override a mesg n command. The default is mesg.
[no]modelinemodeline Runs an editor command line if found in the first five and the last five lines of the file. An editor command line may be anywhere in a line. To be recognized as a command line, it must contain a space or a tab followed by the string ex: or vi:. The command line is ended by a second : (colon). The editor tries to interpret any data between the first and second : as editor commands. The default is nomodeline.
[no]novicenovice The default is nonovice.
[no]numbernu Displays lines prefixed with their line numbers. The default is nonu.
[no]optimizeopt Speeds up the operation of terminals that do not have cursor addressing. The default is noopt.
paragraphspara= Defines macro names that start paragraphs. The default is para=IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipnpbp. Single letter nroff macros, such as .P must include the space as a quoted character if respecifying a paragraph.
partialcharacterpc= The default is pc=-.
[no]promptprompt Prompts for command mode input with a : (colon). When not set, no prompt is displayed. The default is prompt.
readonly" Allows writing to a different file. In addition, the write can be forced by using the ! (exclamation point) character (see the editor command write). The default is off, unless the file lacks write permission or the -R option is specified.
[no]redrawre Simulates a smart display on a dumb display. The default is nore.
[no]remapremap Enables following of map keys. For example, if remap is set, map u k map r u causes r to map to k. If noremap is set, r maps to u. The default is remap.
reportreport= Sets the number of repetitions of a command before a message is displayed. For subcommands that can produce a number of messages, such as global subcommands, the messages are displayed when the command is completed. The default is report=5.
scrollscr= Sets the number of lines to be scrolled when you scroll the screen up or down. The default scroll is one-half the size of the screen.
sectionssect= Defines macro names that start sections. The default is sect=NHSHH HUuhsh+c. Single letter nroff macros, such as .P must include the space as a quoted character if respecifying a paragraph.
shellsh= Defines the shell for ! or :! commands. The default is the value of the SHELL environment variable.
shiftwidthsw= Sets the distance for the software tab stops used by autoindent, the shift commands (> and <), and the text input commands (<Ctrl-d> and <Ctrl-t>) to allow the editor to indent text and move back to a previous indentation. The default is sw=8.
[no]showmatchsm Shows the matching open parenthesis ( or open brace { as you type the close parenthesis ) or close brace }. The default is nosm.
[no]showmodesmd Displays mode indicator at the bottom of the screen when in the insert or replace mode. The default is nosmd.
[no]slowopenslow Postpones updating the display during inserts. The default is noslow.
[no]sourceany Allows the use of the source command on a file that a user does not own. The default is nosourceany.
tabstopts= Sets the distance between tab stops when a file is displayed. The default is ts=8.
taglengthtl= Determines length of tag. The default is tl=0.
[no]tagstag Specifies a list of possible file names of tag files. The default is tag=tags /usr/lib/tags.
termterm= Sets the kind of display you are using. The default is term=$TERM, where $TERM is the value of the TERM shell variable.
[no]terseterse Allows vi to display the short form of messages. The default is noterse.
[no]timeoutto Sets a time limit of 2 seconds on entry of characters. This limit allows the characters in a macro to be entered and processed as separate characters when timeout is set. To resume use of the macro, set notimeout. The default is to.
ttytypetty=Same as term.
[no]warnwarn Displays a warning message before the ! subcommand executes a shell command if this is the first time you issued a shell command after a given set of changes were made in the editing buffer, but not written to a file. The default is warn.
windowwi= Sets the number of lines displayed in one window of text. The default is dependent on the baud rate at which you are operating: 600  baud  or  less  /  8  lines, 1200  baud  /  16  lines, higher  speeds  /  full  screen  minus  1.
wrapmarginwm= Sets the margin for automatic wordwrapping from one line to the next. A value of 0 indicates no wordwrapping. The default is wm=0.
[no]wrapscanws Allows string searches to wrap from the end of the editing buffer to the beginning. The default is ws.
wraptypewt= (For editing Japanese) Controls wrapping of Japanese words. Setting wraptype=general causes general-purpose wrap on word breaks, where word break is defined as whitespace or space between two nonASCII characters. Setting wraptype=general is a combination of word and flexible. Setting wraptype=word causes wrap on words. Setting wraptype=rigid causes wrap on column and before closing punctuation. Setting wraptype=flexible causes wrap on column, but closing punctuation may extend past the margin. The default is wt=word.
[no]writeanywa Turns off the checks usually made before a write command. The default is nowa.


 

Defining Macros

If you use a subcommand or sequence of subcommands frequently, you can create a macro that issues the subcommand or sequence when you call a macro. To create a macro, enter the sequence of subcommands into an editing buffer named with a letter of the alphabet. When used as buffer names, lowercase ASCII letters a through z overlay the contents of the buffer, while uppercase ASCII letters A through Z append text to the previous contents of the buffer, allowing the building of a macro piece by piece.

To invoke the macro, enter @x, where x is the letter name of the buffer. Enter @@ to repeat the last macro you invoked.
 

Mapping Keys

You can use the map command to set a keystroke to a subcommand or a sequence of subcommands. To set a key mapping, enter :map key subcommand where key is the key to which you want to assign a subcommand or sequence of subcommands and subcommand is the subcommand or sequence of subcommands. For example, to set @ to delete lines, enter: :map @ dd

In this example, @ is the key to which the subcommand is assigned and dd is the subcommand.

In the next example, a subcommand sequence is mapped to a key: :map * {>}

The * (asterisk) is the key to which the subcommand sequence is assigned and {>} is the subcommand sequence. The { (open brace) moves the cursor to the beginning of the paragraph and the > (right angle bracket) indents the paragraph to the next shiftwidth.

To display the list of the current key mappings while you are in Command mode, enter the :map command. You can also remove a key mapping. To remove a key mapping, enter :unmap string or :unmap! string where string is the string used after the :map command to set the key and subcommand sequence. For example, to remove key mapping for the previous example, enter: :unmap *

If function keys are defined for your terminal, they can be put in a map or unmap command by typing <Ctrl-v> then pressing the desired key. In this way, function keys that are unused during editing can be mapped to useful editing subcommand sequences.

If the ! (exclamation point) character is appended to the command name map (map!), the mapping is effective during input mode rather than during visual mode.
 

Abbreviations

You can define abbreviations for long phrases that you use often. The vi editor then automatically expands these abbreviations whenever you enter them in insert mode. Only single-byte characters can appear in abbr_string; abbr_string cannot contain Asian multibyte characters.

To define an abbreviation, enter: :abbr abbreviation phrase

where abbreviation is the abbreviation you specify for the longer text specified by phrase. For example, to specify the abbreviation imho for the phrase In my humble opinion, enter: :abbr imho In my humble opinion


 

Keeping a Customized Change

When you customize vi from the vi command line, the customized editor is in effect until you exit the editor. If you want to reuse such things as option settings and key mappings, you must put them in the .exrc file in your home directory or define the EXINIT environment variable. The vi editor processes the commands given in the EXINIT variable or reads the .exrc file each time you invoke it. Here is an example of an .exrc file:

set ai aw set wm=5 map @ dd

Users with both a .exrc file and an EXINIT environment variable will find that the vi editor no longer reads the .exrc file. This change was made to meet the specifications of XPG4.

The standard provides for an approximation of the old behavior. A new variable, named exrc, is defined. When this variable is set by the commands in the EXINIT environment variable, the editor reads .exrc in the current directory for additional startup commands. For example: setenv EXINIT 'set ai terse magic bf wm=1 exrc'

[Compaq]  Additionally, the editor refuses to read the .exrc file if its mode grants write permission to anyone other than the owner; this restriction prevents certain security breaches. No overt indication is given when such a refusal occurs.
 

vi Character Sets

The collation sequence, as defined by the value of the LC_COLLATE environment variable, defines the alphanumeric set used by your system. This table affects the performance of vi macros and subcommands.

The vi editor uses the collation sequence to distinguish between a small word and a big word. A small word is bounded by letters or numbers as defined in the collation table. For example, isn't is two small words. The ' (apostrophe) is not a number or an alphabetic character, and it bounds both the small word t and the small word isn. A big word is bounded by spaces, tabs, or newline indicators. For example, stop is a big word. For more information, see the section Moving to Words.
 

Subcommand Syntax

[named_buffer] [operator] [number] argument

Surrounding brackets indicate optional items. A temporary text storage area. Specifies the subcommand or action; instructs the vi editor. A whole decimal value that specifies either the extent of the action or a line address. The vi editor interprets this number in one of the following ways: Go to line number: 5G 10z<Return> Go forward number columns. 25<Space> Scroll number of lines: 10<Ctrl-d> 10<Ctrl-u> Delete number lines: 6dd The % means all. To yank all lines: %y

(The preceding command replaces 1,$y.) Specifies what to act on. This can be a text object (a character, word, sentence, paragraph, section, or character string) or a text position (a line, position in the current line, or screen position).
 

Moving Within a File

Enter the following subcommands in Command mode. You can cancel an incomplete subcommand by pressing the <Esc> key. Moves the cursor one character to the left. Moves the cursor down one line, remaining in the same column. Moves the cursor up one line, remaining in the same column. Moves the cursor one character to the right.

Long lines: Lines over one screen width are wrapped but not broken. When using the Up Arrow or Page Up key, @ lines are added at the bottom of the screen when too few physical lines are available to display the complete line. The Down Arrow key moves the entire line off the screen at once.
 

Character Positioning Within a Line

Enter the following subcommands in Command mode. Moves the cursor to the first nonspace character. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the line. Moves the cursor to the end of the line. Moves the cursor to the next x character. Moves the cursor to the last x character. Moves the cursor to one column before the next x character. Moves the cursor to one column after the last x character. Repeats the last f, F, t, or T subcommand. Repeats the last f, F, t, or T subcommand in the opposite direction. Moves the cursor to the specified column.
 

Moving to Words

Enter the following subcommands in Command mode. Moves the cursor to the next small word. Moves the cursor to the previous small word. Moves the cursor to the end of the next small word. Moves the cursor to the next big word. Moves the cursor to the previous big word. Moves the cursor to the end of the next big word.
 

Moving by Line Positioning

Enter the following subcommands in Command mode. Moves to the line number given as preceding argument, or the end of the file if no preceding count is given. Moves the cursor to the top line on the screen. Moves the cursor to the last line on the screen. Moves the cursor to the middle line on the screen. Moves the cursor to the next line, at its first nonspace character. Moves the cursor to the previous line, at its first nonspace character. Moves the cursor to the next line, at its first nonspace character.
 

Moving to Sentences, Paragraphs, or Sections

Enter the following subcommands in Command mode. You can cancel an incomplete subcommand by pressing the <Esc> key. Places the cursor at the beginning of the previous sentence (or the previous S-expression if you are in LISP mode). Places the cursor at the beginning of the next sentence (or the next S-expression if you are in LISP mode). Places the cursor at the beginning of the previous paragraph (or at the next list if you are in LISP mode). Places the cursor at the beginning of the next paragraph, at the next section if you are in C mode, or at the next list if you are in LISP mode. Requires a count; the cursor is placed in that column (if possible). Places the cursor at the next section, or function if you are in LISP mode. Places the cursor at the previous section, or function if you are in LISP mode.
 

Paging and Scrolling

Scrolls up (default 12 lines). Scrolls down (default 12 lines). Pages forward one screen. Pages backward one screen. Scrolls the window up one line. Scrolls the window down one line. Moves to the first non-white character in the next line. A count specifies the number of lines to go forward. Inserts shiftwidth white space in input mode, if at the beginning of the line or preceded only by white space. This inserted space can only be backed over using <Ctrl-d>. Cancels a partially formed command; sounds the bell if there is none.

In input mode, terminates input mode.
When entering a command on the bottom line of the screen (ex command line or search pattern with / or ?), terminates input and executes command. Pages up. Pages down.
 

Searching for Patterns

The following commands allow you to search for patterns within a file. Patterns can be regular expressions as described for grep. Places the cursor at the next line containing pattern. Repeats the last search for pattern in the direction of the end of the file. Places the cursor at the next previous line containing pattern. Repeats the last search for pattern in the direction of the beginning of the file. Repeats the last search for pattern in the same direction. Repeats the last search for pattern in the opposite direction. Places the cursor at the numberth line after the line matching pattern. Places the cursor at the numberth line before the line matching pattern. Finds the parenthesis or brace that matches the one at the current cursor position.
 

Marking and Returning

Enter the following subcommands in Command mode. You can cancel an incomplete subcommand by pressing the <Esc> key. Moves the cursor to the same cursor position of the previous current line. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the previous current line. Marks the current position with the letter specified by x. Moves the cursor to the same cursor position of line marked x. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the line marked x.
 

Adjusting the Screen

Enter the following subcommands in Command mode. An incomplete subcommand can be canceled by pressing the <Esc> key. Clears and redraws the screen. Redraws the screen and eliminates blank lines marked with a @. Redraws the screen with the current line at the top of the screen. Redraws the screen with the current line at the bottom of the screen. Redraws the screen with the current line at the center of the screen. Redraws the screen with the line containing pattern at the top. Redraws the screen with the line containing pattern at the top. Redraws the screen with the line containing pattern at the bottom. Redraws the screen with the line containing pattern at the center. Makes the window number lines long.
 

Adding Text to a File--Text Input Mode

The following subcommands are entered in Command mode and bring the vi editor into Text Input mode to allow you to add text to your file. End Text Input mode by pressing the <Esc> key. Inserts text after the cursor. Adds text to the end of the line. Inserts text before the cursor. Inserts text before the first nonspace character in the line. Adds an empty line below the current line. Adds an empty line above the current line.
 

Changing Text While in Input Mode

Use the following commands only while in Text Entry mode. They have different meanings in Command mode. Erases the last character. Erases the last small word. (For more information about small words, see the section vi Character Sets.) Quotes the Erase and Kill characters. Ends insertion, back to Command mode. Interrupts, terminates insert or <Ctrl-d>. Goes back to the previous autoindent stop. Ends autoindent for this line only. Moves the cursor back to the left margin. Quotes a nonprinting character.
 

Changing Text from Command Mode

Use the following subcommands in Command mode. An incomplete subcommand can be canceled by pressing the <Esc> key. Changes the rest of the line (c$). Must be followed by a movement command. Deletes the specified region of text and enters input mode to replace it with the entered text. If more than part of a single line is affected, the deleted text is saved in the numeric buffers. If only part of the current line is affected, the last character to be deleted is marked with a $. A count is passed through to the move command. If the command is cc, the whole of the current line is changed. Changes a line. Changes a word. Deletes the rest of the line (d$) and puts it into the undo buffer. Must be followed by a movement command. Deletes the specified region of text. If more than part of a line is affected, the text is saved in the numeric buffers. A count is passed through to the move command. If the command is dd, the whole of the current line is deleted. Deletes a line and puts it into the undo buffer. Deletes a word and puts it into the undo buffer. Joins lines. Replaces the current character with the character specified by x. Overwrites characters. Substitutes characters (cl). Substitutes lines (cc). Undoes the previous change. Deletes a character. Deletes characters before cursor (dh). Shifts one line to the left. Shifts all lines from the cursor to the end of the screen to the left. (The < character describes a range upon which the L subcommand acts.) Shifts one line to the right. Shifts all lines from the cursor to the end of the screen to the right. (The > character describes a range upon which the L subcommand acts.) Changes the letter at the cursor to the opposite case.
 

Copying and Moving Text

Use the following subcommands in Command mode. An incomplete subcommand can be canceled by pressing <Esc>. Puts back text in the undo buffer after (before) the cursor. Puts back text from the buffer x after (before) the cursor. You must precede the character x with a double quote. Deletes object into the buffer x. You must precede the character x with a double quote. Yanks object into the undo buffer (for example, yw to yank a word). Yanks object into buffer x. You must precede the character x with a double quote. Places the line in the undo buffer.
 

Restoring and Repeating Changes

Use the following subcommands in Command mode. An incomplete subcommand can be canceled by pressing the <Esc> key. Undoes the last command. Restores the current line if the cursor has not left the line since the last change. Repeats the last change or increments the np command.

Note that this command is not meant for use with a macro. Enter @@ to repeat a macro. Retrieves the nth last delete of a complete line or block of lines. You must precede the character n with a double quote.
 

Saving Changes to a File

Use the following subcommands in Command mode. An incomplete subcommand can be canceled by pressing <Esc>. If you are using these subcommands within the ex editor, do not type the : (colon). Writes the editing buffer contents to the original file. Writes the editing buffer contents to the named file. Overwrites file with the editing buffer contents. [Compaq]  Prompts you to enter an encryption key. When you save the file, it is written in encrypted form. For subsequent edits of the encrypted file, use the -x option to display the file in its unencrypted form.
 

Interrupting, Cancelling, and Exiting vi

Enters the ex editor in Command mode. Exits vi, saving changes, if any were made. Quits vi. If you have changed the contents of the editing buffer, vi displays a warning message and does not quit. Quits vi, discarding the editing buffer with no warning. Runs a shell. You can return to vi by pressing <Ctrl-d>. Runs the file through the specified shell command (causes no change to the file). Runs command, then returns. Repeats the last :!command command. Executes the shell command identified by command and replaces the number of lines specified by n with the output of command. If n is not specified, the default is 1. If command expects standard input, the lines specified are used as input. (10!!sort sorts the next 10 lines.) Works like n!!command, except that lines is a line address (for example, !Gsort sorts the rest of the file). Interrupts a subcommand.
 

Editing a Second File

Enter the following subcommands in Command mode. An incomplete subcommand can be canceled by pressing the <Esc> key. Edits file. If you are using this subcommand from the ex editor, do not type the : (colon). Reedits the current file and discards all changes. Edits file, starting at the end. Edits file, starting at the line number. Edits the alternate file. The alternate file is usually the previous current file name. However, if changes are pending on the current file when a new file is called, the new file becomes the alternate file. Reads the file into the editing buffer by adding new lines below the current line. If you are using this subcommand from the ex editor, do not type the : (colon). Runs the shell command identified by command and places its output in the file by adding new lines below the current cursor position.
 

Using a Tags File

The ctags command makes a tags file from the specified C, Pascal, FORTRAN, yacc, lex, or LISP source files. A tags file gives the locations of function and type definitions in a group of files. To use the next three commands, you must first create a database of function names and their locations (called a tags file) using the ctags command. Edits a file containing tag at the location of tag. If the tag is in another file and the current file has been changed (and noaw is set), a warning is posted. If you are using this subcommand from the ex editor, do not type the : (colon). Finds the word at the cursor in the tags file then displays the proper file, placing the cursor at the tag. If the tag is in the current file, moves cursor to it. Same as :ta, but the tag is the word to the right of the cursor. Returns to the file and line where the cursor was positioned when <Ctrl-]> was entered.
 

Editing a List of Files

Enter the following subcommands in Command mode. Edits the next file in the list entered on the command line. Specifies a new list of files to edit.
 

Displaying File Information

[Compaq]  Enter the following subcommand in Command mode to show the current file name, the current line number, the number of lines in the file, and the percentage of lines of the file that are before the cursor:

<Ctrl-g>


 

EXIT STATUS

The following exit values are returned: Successful completion. An error occurred.
 

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS

The following actions are taken upon receipt of signals: The current editor command is aborted and vi returns to the command level and prompts for another command. The screen is refreshed if in visual mode. If the current buffer has changed since the last e or w command, vi attempts to save the current file in a state such that it can be recovered later by an ex -r or vi -r command.
 

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

The following environment variables affect the execution of vi: Overrides the system-selected horizontal screen size. Determines a list of ex commands to be executed at startup before the first file is read. The list can include multiple commands separated by a vertical line (|) character. Determines the pathname of a directory searched at startup for a file named .exrc. Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value from the default locale is used. If any of the internationalization variables contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of the variables had been defined. If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the other internationalization variables. Determines the locale for the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and multicharacter collating elements within regular expressions. Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multibyte characters in arguments and input files), the behavior of character classes within regular expressions, the classification of characters as upper- or lower-case letters, the case conversion of letters, and the detection of word boundaries. Overrides the system-selected vertical screen size, used as the number of lines in a screenful and the vertical screen size in visual mode. Determines the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error. Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES. Determines the search path for the shell command specified in the editor commands shell, read and write and the visual-mode command !. Determines the preferred command-line interpreter for use in !, shell, read and other commands with an operand of the form !string. For the shell command the program will be invoked with the single argument -i, for all others it will be invoked with the two arguments -c and string. If this variable is null or not set, the sh command will be used. Determines the name of the terminal type. If this variable is unset or null, a default terminal type that provides most capabilities is used.
 

SEE ALSO

Commands:  ctags(1), edit(1), ed(1), ex(1), grep(1), mesg(1), nroff(1), sed(1)

Files:  terminfo(4)

Environment:  environ(5)

Standards:  standards(5)


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
Normal Syntax
Read-only Syntax
Novice Version Syntax
STANDARDS
OPTIONS
OPERANDS
DESCRIPTION
Limitations of the vi Editor
Editing Modes
Setting Options
Defining Macros
Mapping Keys
Abbreviations
Keeping a Customized Change
vi Character Sets
Subcommand Syntax
Moving Within a File
Character Positioning Within a Line
Moving to Words
Moving by Line Positioning
Moving to Sentences, Paragraphs, or Sections
Paging and Scrolling
Searching for Patterns
Marking and Returning
Adjusting the Screen
Adding Text to a File--Text Input Mode
Changing Text While in Input Mode
Changing Text from Command Mode
Copying and Moving Text
Restoring and Repeating Changes
Saving Changes to a File
Interrupting, Cancelling, and Exiting vi
Editing a Second File
Using a Tags File
Editing a List of Files
Displaying File Information
EXIT STATUS
ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
SEE ALSO

This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 02:42:47 GMT, October 02, 2010