mule - Multilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs
mule [command-line switches] [files...]
Mule is a multilingual enhancement to GNU Emacs. Mule provides a facility to display, input, and edit multilingual characters in addition to all GNU Emacs facilities.
GNU Emacs is a new version of Emacs, written by the author of the original (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman. Its user functionality encompasses everything other Emacs editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands are written in Lisp.
Emacs has an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility assumes that you know how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers. CTRL-h (backspace or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility. Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) requests an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamentals of Emacs in a few minutes. Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-h c) describes a given character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function specified by name.
Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.
GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and sending (Mail), outline editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).
There is an extensive reference manual, but users of other Emacses should have little trouble adapting even without a copy. Users new to Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial and using the self-documentation features.
The following options are of general interest: Edit file. Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between the "+" sign and the number). Do not load an init file. Load user's init file. Use specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout. This must be the first argument specified in the command line.
The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the order encountered): Execute the lisp function function. Load the lisp code in the file file.
The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor: Edit in batch mode using the commands found in commandfile. The editor will send messages to stdout. This option must be the first in the argument list. Exit Emacs while in batch mode.
Using Emacs with X
Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system. If you run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to display in. You will probably want to start the editor as a background process so that you can continue using your original window.
Emacs can be started with the following X switches: Specifies the program name which should be used when looking up defaults in the user's X resources. This must be the first option specified in the command line. Specifies the name which should be assigned to the Emacs window. Display the Emacs window in reverse video. Use the ``kitchen sink'' bitmap icon when iconifying the Emacs window. Set the Emacs window's fontset to that specified by fontset. You can specify a fontset just by the name or a comma separated list of fonts. In the former case, the actual contents of the fontset should be defined by X's resource or Emacslisp function new-fontset. In the latter case, a fontset of no name is created from the list. You will find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory. Note that Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts. Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with the value ``m'' or ``c'' in the eleventh field of the font name is a fixed width font. Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the form widthxheight are generally fixed width, as is the font fixed. See xlsfonts(1X) for more information.
You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources file (see xrdb(1X)). Use the following format: emacs.keyword:value
where value specifies the default value of keyword. Emacs lets you set default values for the following keywords: Sets the window's text font. List of names of fontsets. The first fontset in the list is used by default. Definition of fontset XXX. It should be a comma separated list of font names. Each name should contain at least CHARSET-REGISTRY. If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window will be displayed in reverse video. If bitmapIcon's value is set to on, the window will iconify into the ``kitchen sink.'' Sets the window's border width in pixels. Sets the window's internal border width in pixels. For color displays, sets the window's text color. For color displays, sets the window's background color. For color displays, sets the color of the window's border. For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor. For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor. Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above). Sets the title of the Emacs window. Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.
If you try to set color values while using a black and white display, the window's characteristics will default as follows: the foreground color will be set to black, the background color will be set to white, the border color will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will be set to black.
Using the Mouse
The following lists the mouse button bindings for the
window under X11.
Cut text into X cut buffer.
Cut text into X cut buffer.
Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
Select this window, then split it into two windows. Same
as typing CTRL-x 2.
X buffer menu--hold the buttons and keys down, wait for
menu to appear, select buffer, and release. Move mouse out of menu and release
X help menu--pop up index card menu for Emacs help.
Select window with mouse, and delete all other windows. Same
as typing CTRL-x 1.
You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual for $20.00/copy postpaid from the Free Software Foundation, which develops GNU software (contact them for quantity prices on the manual). Their address is:
Free Software Foundation 675 Mass Ave. Cambridge, MA 02139
Your local Emacs maintainer
might also have copies available. As with all software and publications from
FSF, everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies of the Emacs manual.
The TeX source to the manual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.
There is a mailing list, [email protected] on the internet (ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs bugs and fixes. But before reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate feature. We ask you to read the section ``Reporting Emacs Bugs'' near the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and when to report bugs. Also, include the version number of the Emacs you are running in every bug report that you send in.
Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report. The purpose of reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release, if possible. For personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see below) for a list of people who offer it.
Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list. Send requests to be added to mailing lists to the special list [email protected] (or the corresponding UUCP address). For more information about Emacs mailing lists, see the file /usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS. Bugs tend actually to be fixed if they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in such a way that they can be easily reproduced.
Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with programs running in Raw mode on some Unix versions.
There is a mailing list, [email protected] on the internet, for reporting
Mule bugs and fixes. But before reporting something as a bug, please try
to check if the bug is Mule oriented or original GNU Emacs oriented. The mailing
list above is to discuss Mule oriented matters.
Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the terms stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference manual.
Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license covering those systems. Such inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is permitted. In fact, the primary purpose of the General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restrictions to redistribution of Emacs.
Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library. Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will be a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix. Everyone will be able to use the GNU system for free.
is also free; anyone may redistribute copies
to anyone under the terms stated in the
General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy
files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem of Emacs)
to refer to. Currently not much of Unix is documented here, but the complete
text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient tree structured
Lisp source files and compiled files that define most editing
commands. Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when
various programs that are used with GNU Emacs, and some files
contains the documentation strings for the Lisp primitives
and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs. They are stored here to reduce
the size of Emacs proper.
lists people offering various services to assist users of
GNU Emacs, including education, troubleshooting, porting and customization.
These files also have information useful to anyone wishing to write programs
in the Emacs Lisp extension language, which has not yet been fully documented.
holds lock files that are made for all files being modified
in Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of one file by two users.
list of valid X color names.
Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation. Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.
Mule was written by Ken'ichi HANDA, Satoru TOMURA, and Mikiko NISHIKIMI of Electrotechnical Laboratory, JAPAN, with a great help by members of the Mule mailing list.