Content-type: text/html Man page of ex

ex

Section: User Commands (1)
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NAME

ex - Edits lines in a file interactively, with screen display.  

SYNOPSIS

ex [-lRsv] [-c subcommand] [-w number] [-x] [+[subcommand]] [-v] [-] [file...]

ex [-lRsv] [-t tag] [-v] [-x] [file...]

ex [-r[file]] [-lRsv] [-v] [-x] [file]


 

STANDARDS

Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards as follows:

ex:  XPG4, XPG4-UNIX

Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information about industry standards and associated tags.
 

OPTIONS

Executes the specified ex subcommand (command) before editing begins.

This subcommand may actually consist of several commands separated by vertical line (|) characters. Indents appropriately for LISP code, and accepts the (, ), {, }, [, and ] characters (parentheses, braces, and brackets) as text rather than interpreting them as vi subcommands. The LISP modifier is active in open or visual modes. Recovers file after an editor or system crash. If you do not specify file, a list of all saved files is displayed. Sets the readonly option, preventing you from altering the file. Does not display the file name or the : prompt upon entering ex. (Silent mode.) Loads the file that contains tag and positions the editor at tag. To use this option, you must first create a database of function names and locations using the ctags command. Invokes the visual editor. When the -v option is specified, an enlarged set of subcommands is available, including screen editing and cursor movement features. See the vi(1) reference page. Sets the default window size to number lines. [Compaq]  Prompts for an encryption key, then unencrypts the file. If the file specified is not encrypted or the incorrect key is entered, garbled text is displayed. Suppresses all interactive user feedback. If you use this option, file input/output errors do not generate an error message. Performs the ex subcommand before editing begins. When subcommand is not entered, a + (plus sign) sets the current line to the bottom of the file. Normally ex sets the current line to the last line of the file, or to some specified tag or pattern.
This subcommand may actually consist of several commands separated by vertical line (|) characters.
 

OPERANDS

The file argument specifies the file or files to be edited. If you supply more than one file, the ex editor edits each file in the specified order.
 

DESCRIPTION

The ex command is a line-oriented text editor that is a subset of the vi screen editor.

[Compaq]  The ex editor is similar to ed, but is more powerful, providing multiline displays and access to a screen editing mode. You may prefer to call vi directly to have environment variables set for screen editing. Also edit, a limited subset of ex, is available for novices or casual use.

[Compaq]  To determine how your terminal can perform more efficiently, ex uses the terminal capability database terminfo and the type of terminal you are using from the TERM environment variable.

The ex editor has the following features: [Compaq]  The X subcommand encrypts a file. Ensure that you remember the encryption key specified when using this subcommand as there is no simple means of unencrypting the file if the key is forgotten. Only the first six characters of the key are significant. The z subcommand lets you access windows of text, and you can scroll through text by pressing <Ctrl-d> and <Ctrl-u> (visual (-v) mode only). The undo subcommand allows you to reverse the last subcommand, even if it is an undo subcommand. Thus, you can switch back and forth between the latest change in the edit file and the last prior file status and view the effect of a subcommand without that effect being permanent. Commands that affect the external environment cannot be undone, however. The undo subcommand causes all marks to be lost on lines changed and then restored if the marked lines were changed. It does not clear the buffer modified condition.

The ex command displays changed lines and indicates when more than a few lines are affected by a subcommand. You can: Retrieve your work (except changes that were in the buffer) if the system or the editor crashes by reentering the editor with the -r option and the file name. Edit a sequence or group of files. You can use the next subcommand to edit each file on the command line in turn, or to specify a list of file names to edit (using the shell pattern matching syntax). The wildcard character % (percent sign) represents the name of the current edit file and can be used to form file names. Copy and move text within a file and between files (see the co, d, ya, and pu subcommands). You use a group of buffers (that have the names of the ASCII letter a to z) to move text. You can temporarily place text in these buffers and copy or reinsert it in a file, or you can carry it over to another file. The buffers are cleared when you quit the editor. The editor does not notify you if text is placed in a buffer and not used before exiting the editor. Use patterns that match words. A pattern can be a fixed character string or a regular expression.

A regular expression is a string constructed of special pattern-matching characters. Using a regular expression to locate text in a file gives you more flexibility than trying to locate a fixed character string. For more information about regular expressions, see grep.
 

Editing Modes

When you start the ex editor, it is in command mode. Enter ex subcommands at the : (colon) prompt. Pressing <Esc> cancels a partial subcommand. Entered by a, i, and c. In this state, you can enter text. Entry state ends normally with a line that has only a . (period) on it or ends abruptly if you press the Interrupt key sequence. Entered by vi, vi., vi-, or o. Each of the first three commands gives you a full screen vi editor, but puts the current line in a different place on entry. Enter vi to put the current line at the top of the screen; enter vi. to put the current line in the middle of the screen; and enter vi- to put the current line at the bottom of the screen.

The o command opens a one-line window. All three commands share the input state of the vi editor. Press <Esc> to exit text entry mode. To return to the ex command state at the current line, enter Q while in command mode.
 

Limits of ex

The ex editor has the following maximum limits: [Compaq]  2048 bytes per line [Compaq]  256 bytes per global command list [Compaq]  128 bytes in the previous inserted and deleted text [Compaq]  128 bytes in a shell escape command [Compaq]  128 bytes in a string-valued option [Compaq]  30 bytes in a tag name [Compaq]  128 map macros with 2048 bytes total
 

Subcommands

The ex subcommands affect the current line unless you specify otherwise. For information about how to address lines in a file, see edit and vi. For a complete description of edit options, see Setting Options on the vi(1) reference page.

You can use optional modifiers with some of the subcommands specified in this section. Any or all modifiers specified by each subcommand can be used or omitted. Following is a description of the optional modifiers: Specifies a single address; the default is the current line. Specifies a line or pair of line addresses separated by a comma (,) or semicolon (;). The default for range is the current line only (.,.). A percent sign (%) denotes the range (1,$). If the starting address of the range specified exceeds the ending address, the range is invalid and the command is not performed. If more than the expected number of addresses are provided in a range, the greatest valid number of the last ones provided are used. For example, 1, 3, 5p prints lines 3 to 5 inclusive (because two is the greatest valid number in the range accepted by print. Specifies a positive integer that determines the number of lines affected by the command. The default is 1. Adds numbers to the list-format output where flag is character #, p, or l. The use of flags applies to all lines written by the list, number, open, print, substitute, visual, &, and z commands. For all other commands, it applies to the current line at the completion of the command. Also, any number or + or - characters cannot be specified after flags. This causes the line written not to be affected by the command, but rather affects the line addressed by the offset as described above. The default is null. Specifies one of a number of named areas for saved text. The named buffers are specified by the lowercase letters of the POSIX locale. Specifying the buffer optional modifier causes the area of text affected by the command to be stored into the buffer as it was before the command took effect. This argument is also used with the put command and the visual mode put commands (p and P) to specify the buffer that provides the text to insert.

If the buffer name is specified in uppercase, and the buffer is to be modified (using a deletion or yanking command), the buffer is appended to rather than being overwritten. If the buffer is not to be modified (as in a visual mode put command), the buffer name can be specified in lowercase or uppercase with the same results. There is also one unnamed buffer which is the repository for all text deleted (with the delete or visual mode d command), or yanked (with the yank or visual mode y command) when a buffer is not specified.

Following is the list of valid subcommands: Adds the specified abbreviation to the current abbreviation list. Enters input mode and places text after the specified line. To place the text at the beginning of the buffer, specify line 0. The ! (exclamation point) toggles the autoindent editor option setting for the execution of this subcommand. Writes the argument list (the list of arguments on startup) with the current argument inside [ and ] (left and right brackets). The argument list can later be replaced by the arguments of the next subcommand. Enters input mode and replaces the lines in range with the input text. The current line is the last line input. The ! (exclamation point), toggles the autoindent editor option setting for the execution of this subcommand. Changes the current working directory to directory. If the current buffer has been modified since the last write, the subcommand issues a warning and fails. You can override this warning by appending an ! (exclamation point) to the subcommand name. Places a copy of the lines in range after the specified line. Line 0 causes the lines to be placed at the beginning of the buffer. Deletes the specified lines from the buffer. If you specify a named buffer, the deleted text is placed there; otherwise, the deleted text is placed in the unnamed buffer. The current line is the line following the deleted lines, or the last line if the deleted lines were at the end. Edits file. If the current buffer has been modified since the last write, the subcommand writes a warning and terminates. You can override this action by appending an ! (exclamation point) character to the subcommand (for example, e!file).

If the +line argument is specified, the current line is the specified position, where line can be a number (or $) or can be specified as /pattern or ?pattern. Preceding the pattern with a / (slash) starts a search from the beginning of the file. Preceding the pattern with a ? (question mark) starts a search from the end of the file. This subcommand is affected by the autowrite and writeany editor options. Writes the current path name, the number of lines, and the current position (if no file argument was specified). If file is specified, ex changes the current file name to file without changing the contents of the buffer or the previous current file. Marks the lines within the given range that match (g) or do not match (v) the given pattern. Then executes the ex subcommands with the current line set to each marked line.
You can specify multiple subcommands, one per line, by escaping each newline character with a \ (backslash). If the subcommands argument is not specified, each line is written. For the append, change, and insert subcommands, the input text is included as part of the global subcommand; in this case, you can omit the terminating period if it ends subcommands. The visual subcommand can be specified as part of subcommands. In this mode, input is taken from the terminal. Entering a Q from visual mode selects the next line matching the pattern and reenters visual mode, until the list is exhausted.
You cannot use the global subcommand and the undo subcommand in the subcommands argument. The autoprint, autoindent, and report editor options are inhibited for the duration of the g or v subcommand. Enters input mode and places the input text before the specified line. The ! (exclamation point) toggles the autoindent editor option setting for the execution of this subcommand. Joins the text from the specified lines together into one line. In the POSIX locale, when the last character on the first line of a pair of lines to be joined is a . (period), two spaces are added following the period; when the last character of the first line is a space or when the first character on the second line of the pair is a ) (right parenthesis), no spaces are added; otherwise, one space is added following the last character of the first line. Extra spaces at the start of a line are discarded.
Appending an ! (exclamation point) character to the join subcommand causes a simpler join with no whitespace processing, independent of the current locale. Writes the addressed lines; nonprintable characters are written as multicharacter sequences. The end of the line is marked with a $ (dollar sign).
Long lines are folded. The current line is the last line written. Defines macros for use in visual mode. The first argument must be a single character or the sequence #digit (one of the terminal's numbered function keys). When this character or function key is entered in visual mode, the action is as if the corresponding rhs had been entered. If the ! (exclamation point) character is appended to the subcommand name map, the mapping is effective during input mode rather than command mode. This allows x to have two different macro definitions at the same time: one for command mode and one for input mode. Nonprintable characters, except for the Tab character, require escaping with <Ctrl-V> (or <Ctrl-Q>) to be entered in the arguments. On certain block mode terminals, the mapping need not occur immediately (for example, it might occur after the terminal transmits a group of characters to the system), but it modifies the file as if it occurred immediately.
The map subcommand with no arguments writes all of the macros currently defined. If an ! (exclamation point) is appended to the subcommand, only the macros effective during input mode are written; otherwise, only the macros effective during command mode are written. Gives the specified line the specified mark x, which must be a single lowercase letter of the POSIX locale. The current line position is not affected. The expression 'x can then be used as an address in any subcommand requiring one. For example, the following subcommand deletes all of the lines from the current one to the marked line: .,'xd
In addition, see the vi `` and '' subcommands for uses of the mark in visual mode. If the 'x subcommand is used in nonvisual mode, the character marked is the first nonspace character of the current line; otherwise, the character marked is the character at the current column of the current line. Moves the specified lines (range) after the target line (line). The current line is the first of the moved lines. Edits the next file from the argument list. If the current buffer has been modified since the last write, the subcommand writes a warning and terminates. You can override this action by appending the ! (exclamation point) character to the subcommand name (n!). You can replace the argument list by specifying a new one as arguments to this subcommand. Editing then starts with the first file on this new list. The current line is reset as described for the edit subcommand. This subcommand is affected by the autowrite and writeany editor options. Writes the selected lines, each preceded with its line number in decimal. Nonprintable characters, except for <Tab>, are expanded as specified by the print subcommand.
The only meaningful flag is l, which allows additional expanded writing of tabs and End-of-Line characters by the list subcommand. The current line is the last line written. Enters open mode, which is equivalent to visual mode with a one-line window. All visual mode subcommands are available. If a match is found for the optional regular expression in line, the cursor is placed at the start of the matching pattern. The visual mode subcommand Q (see vi) exits open mode. Saves the current buffer in a form that can later be recovered by using ex -r or by using the recover subcommand. After the file has been preserved, a mail message is sent to the user. The message contains the name of the file, the time of preservation, and an ex subcommand for recovering the file. Additional information can be included in the mail message. Writes the addressed lines. Nonprintable characters, except for the Tab character, are written as multicharacter sequences. Long lines are folded. The only meaningful flags are # and l. The current line is the last line written. Puts back deleted or yanked lines after the specified line. A buffer can be specified; otherwise, the text in the unnamed buffer (where deleted or yanked text is placed by default) is restored. The current line is the first line put back. Terminates the editing session. If the current buffer has been modified since the last write, the subcommand writes a warning and terminates. You can override this warning and force an exit, discarding changes, by appending the character ! to the subcommand name. Places a copy of the specified file in the current buffer after the target line (line 0 places text at the beginning). If no file is named, the current file is the default. If there is no current file, the specified file becomes the current file. If there is neither current file nor file argument, the subcommand fails.
The current line is the last line read. In visual mode, the current line is the first line read. If file is preceded by !, file is taken to be an operating system command and passed to the program named in the SHELL environment variable. The resulting output is read in to the buffer. You can override the special meaning of ! by escaping it with a \ (backslash) character. Attempts to recover file if it was saved as the result of a preserve subcommand, the receipt of a signal, or a system or editor crash. The current line is reset as described for the read subcommand. Rewinds the argument list; that is, sets the current file to the first file in the argument list. This is equivalent to a next subcommand with the current argument list as its argument. If the current buffer has been modified since the last write, the subcommand writes a warning and terminates. You can override the action by appending the ! (exclamation point) character to the subcommand name (rew!). The current line is reset as described for the read editor subcommand. This subcommand is affected by the autowrite and writeany editor options. When no arguments are specified, writes those options whose values have been changed from the default settings; when the argument all is specified, writes all of the option values.
Specifying an option name followed by the ? character causes the current value of that option to be written. The ? can be separated from the option name by zero or more spaces. The ? is necessary only for Boolean valued options. Boolean options can be given values by the form se option to turn them on or se nooption to turn them off; string and numeric options can be assigned by the form se option=value. Spaces in strings can be included as they are by preceding each such character with a \ (backslash). More than one option can be set or listed by a single set subcommand by specifying multiple arguments, each separated from the next by one or more spaces. Invokes the program named in the SHELL environment variable with the argument -i (interactive mode). You can resume editing when the program exits. Reads and executes subcommands from the file specified by the mandatory file argument. Such source subcommands can be nested. Replaces the first instance of pattern by the string repl on each specified line. If the /pattern/repl/ argument is not present, the /pattern/repl/ from the previous substitute subcommand is used.
If options includes the letter g (global), all nonoverlapping instances of the pattern in the line are substituted. If the option letter c (confirm) is included, then before each substitution the line is written with ^ characters written on the following line, adjacent to and identifying the pattern to be replaced; an affirmative response causes the substitution to be done, while any other input causes it to abort. An affirmative response consists of a line with the affirmative response (as defined by the current locale) at the beginning of the line. Such a line is subject to editing in the same way as the command line (the / or : line at the bottom of the screen).
The current line is the last line substituted. When the c option is used, typing the Interrupt character or receiving the SIGINT signal stops the substitute operation, and ex returns to command mode. All substitutions completed before the interrupt occurred are retained and none are made after that point. The current line is the last line substituted.
This subcommand is affected by the LC_MESSAGES environment variable and the wrapscan option. Allows control to return to the invoking process; ex suspends itself as if it had received the SIGTSTP signal. The suspension occurs only if job control is enabled in the invoking shell.
Following either suspend or stop with the character ! affects the operation of the autowrite editor option for this subcommand only.
The current suspend character (see stty) also causes the suspension. Searches for the tag string, which can be in a different file. If the tag is in a different file, the new file is opened for editing. If the current buffer has been modified since the last write, the subcommand writes a warning and terminates. You can override the action by appending the ! character to the subcommand name. The current line is reset to the line indicated by the tag. This subcommand is affected by the autowrite, tags, and writeany editor options.
The tag subcommand searches for tagstring in the tag file referred to by the tags editor option until a reference to tagstring is found. The file pointed to by this reference is loaded into the buffer, and the current line is set to the first occurrence of the pattern specified in the tags file associated with the supplied tagstring. If the tags file contained a line number reference, the current line is set to that line. If the pattern or line number is not found, the subcommand writes an error message. If a file referred to by the tags editor option does not exist or is not readable, the subcommand also writes an error message. Deletes word from the list of abbreviations, as described by the abbrev subcommand. Reverses the changes made by the previous editing subcommand (one that changes the contents of the buffer). For this purpose, global and visual are considered single subcommands. An undo can be reversed. Commands that affect the external environment, such as write, edit, and next cannot be undone. If no ! (exclamation point) is specified, removes the command-mode macro definition for x; otherwise, removes the input-mode macro definition for x. See the map subcommand. Enters visual mode with the current line set to line. The type argument is optional, and can be a - (minus sign), . (period), + (plus sign), or ^ (circumflex), as in the z subcommand, to specify the position of the specified line on the screen window. (The default is to place the line at the top of the screen window.) The count argument specifies the number of lines that are initially written; the default is the value of the window editor option. The Q subcommand exits visual mode. (For more information about the Q subcommand, see the vi(1) reference page.) Writes the specified lines (the whole buffer, if range is not specified) out to the file represented by path name file, writing to standard output the number of lines and bytes written.
If file is specified and is not the current file, and the file named by file exists, then the write fails. If the current file has been changed by the file subcommand and that file exists, the write fails. In either case, you can force the write by appending the ! (exclamation point) character to the subcommand name. You can append to an existing file by appending >> to the subcommand name.
If the file argument is preceded by an ! (exclamation point) character, the program named in the SHELL environment variable is invoked with file as its second argument, and the specified lines are passed as standard input to the subcommand. The ! in this usage must be separated from the write subcommand by at least one space character. You can override the special meaning of ! by escaping it with a \ (backslash) character. This subcommand is affected by the writeany and readonly editor options.
The subcommand wq is equivalent to a w followed by a q; wq! is equivalent to w! followed by q. If the current buffer has no path name associated with it, the write subcommand fails. Performs a write subcommand if any changes have been made to the current buffer since the last write to any file.
Unless the subcommand fails because an attempt to write lines to a file did not succeed, the ex program exits after an x subcommand. This subcommand is affected by the writeany and readonly editor options. [Compaq]  Prompts you to enter an encryption key. Only the first six characters of this key are significant. When the ex command writes a file after the encryption key is specified, the output is written in encrypted form. Subsequent edits of the file require the use of the -x option to display the file in its unencrypted form. Places the specified lines in the named buffer. If no buffer is specified, the unnamed buffer is used (where the most recently deleted or yanked text is placed by default). If type is omitted, count lines following the specified line are written. The default for count is the value of the window editor option. The type argument changes the position where line is written on the screen by affecting the number of lines written before and after line.
If type is specified, it is one of the following: Places line at the bottom of the screen. Places line at the top of the screen. Places line in the middle. Writes out count lines starting count*2 lines before the addressed line; the net effect of this is that a z^ subcommand following another z subcommand writes the previous page. Centers the addressed line on the screen with a line of - (dash) characters written immediately before and after it. The number of preceding and following lines of text written are reduced to account for these lines of hyphens.
In all cases, the current line is the last line written, with the exception of the = type, which causes the current line to be that addressed in the subcommand. Passes the remainder of the line after the ! (exclamation point) character to the program named in the SHELL environment variable for execution. A warning is issued if the buffer has been changed since the last write. A single ! character is written when the subcommand completes. The current line position is not affected.
Within the text of subcommand, % (percent sign) and # (number sign) are expanded as path names (the current and alternative path names, respectively), and ! is replaced with the text of the previous ! subcommand. (Thus, !! repeats the previous ! subcommand.) If any such expansion is performed, the expanded line is echoed.
You can override the special meanings of %, #, and ! by escaping them with a \ (backslash) character. This subcommand is affected by the autowrite and writeany editor options.
In the second form of the ! subcommand, the remainder of the line after the ! is passed to the program named in the SHELL environment variable, as described previously. The specified lines are provided to the program as standard input; the resulting output replaces the specified lines. Shifts the specified lines to the left; the number of character positions to be shifted is determined by the shiftwidth editor option. Only leading spaces are lost in shifting; other characters are not affected. The current line is the last line changed. Shifts the specified lines to the right, by inserting spaces, using tabs where possible, as determined by the shiftwidth editor option. Empty lines are not changed. The current line is the last line changed. Repeats the previous substitute subcommand, as if (&) were replaced by the previous s/pattern/repl/ subcommand. (The same effect can be obtained by omitting the /pattern/repl/ string in the substitute subcommand.) The version of the subcommand using ~ (tilde) is the same as & and s, but the pattern used is the last regular expression used in any subcommand, not necessarily the one used in the last substitute subcommand. For example, in the following sequence, the ~ (tilde) is equivalent to s/green/blue/:
s/red/blue/ /green ~ Writes the line number of the specified line (the default is the last line). The current line position is not affected. Writes the next n lines, where n is the value of the editor option scroll. The subcommand is invoked with the End-of-File character. The current line is the last line written. Executes each line of the named buffer as an ex subcommand. If no buffer is specified, or is specified as @ or *, the last buffer executed is used. If there is no last buffer, an error occurs. Displays addressed lines with line numbers Starts comment Displays next line
 

Subcommand Addresses

The last line The next line The previous line The nth line forward The nth previous line The first through last lines Line number The current line The numberth line before line x Lines x through y The line marked with m The previous context The next line with pattern at end of line The next line with pattern at start of line The next line with pattern The previous line with pattern
 

Scanning Pattern Formation

The beginning of the line The end of the line Any character The beginning of the word The end of the word Any character in string Any character not in string Any character between x and y, inclusive Any number of the preceding character The replacement part of the last substitute subcommand. A regular expression pattern can be enclosed in escaped parentheses to identify them for substitution actions.
 

Startup Files

When you customize ex from the ex command line, the customized editor is in effect until you exit the editor. If you want to reuse such things as option settings and key mappings, you must put them in the .exrc file in your home directory or define the EXINIT environment variable. The ex editor processes the commands given in the EXINIT variable or reads the .exrc file each time you invoke it. Here is an example of an .exrc file:

set ai aw set wm=5

Users with both an .exrc file and an EXINIT environment variable will find that the ex editor no longer reads the .exrc file. This change was made to meet the specifications of XPG4.

The standard provides for an approximation of the old behavior. A new variable, named exrc, is defined. When this variable is set by the commands in the EXINIT environment variable, the editor reads .exrc in the current directory for additional startup commands. For example:

setenv EXINIT 'set ai terse magic bf wm=1 exrc'

Additionally, the editor refuses to read the .exrc file if its mode grants write permission to anyone other than the owner; this restriction prevents certain security breaches. No overt indication is given when such a refusal occurs.
 

EXIT STATUS

The following exit values are returned: Successful completion. An error occurred.
 

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS

The following actions are taken upon receipt of signals: When an interrupt occurs, ex alerts the terminal and writes a message. The current editor command is aborted and ex returns to the command level and prompts for another command. If the standard input is not a terminal device, ex exits at the interrupt and returns a non-zero exit status. (The alerting action can be modified by the use of the errorbells editor option.) The screen is refreshed if in visual mode. If the current buffer has changed since the last e or w command, ex attempts to save the current file in a state such that it can be recovered later by an ex -r or vi -r command.
 

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

The following environment variables affect the execution of ex: Overrides the system-selected horizontal screen size. Determines a list of ex commands to be executed at startup before the first file is read. The list can include multiple commands separated by a vertical line (|) character. Determines the path name of a directory searched at startup for a file named .exrc. Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value from the default locale is used. If any of the internationalization variables contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of the variables had been defined. If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the other internationalization variables. Determines the locale for the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and multicharacter collating elements within regular expressions. Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multibyte characters in arguments and input files), the behavior of character classes within regular expressions, the classification of characters as upper- or lower-case letters, the case conversion of letters, and the detection of word boundaries. Overrides the system-selected vertical screen size, used as the number of lines in a screenful and the vertical screen size in visual mode. Determines the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error. Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES. Determines the search path for the shell command specified in the editor commands shell, read and write and the visual-mode command !. Determines the preferred command line interpreter for use in !, shell, read and other commands with an operand of the form !string. For the shell command the program will be invoked with the single argument -i, for all others it will be invoked with the two arguments -c and string. If this variable is null or not set, the sh command will be used. Determines the name of the terminal type. If this variable is unset or null, a default terminal type that provides most capabilities is used.
 

FILES

recover subcommand preserve subcommand Terminal information database Editor startup file Editor temporary file Names buffer temporary file Preservation directory
 

SEE ALSO

Commands:  ctags(1), edit(1), ed(1), grep(1), sed(1), stty(1), vi(1)

Files:  terminfo(4)

Environment:  environ(5)

Standards:  standards(5)


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
STANDARDS
OPTIONS
OPERANDS
DESCRIPTION
Editing Modes
Limits of ex
Subcommands
Subcommand Addresses
Scanning Pattern Formation
Startup Files
EXIT STATUS
ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
FILES
SEE ALSO

This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 02:42:47 GMT, October 02, 2010