cd - Changes the current working directory
The C shell has a built-in version of the cd command. If you are using the C shell, and want to guarantee that you are using the command described here, you must specify the full path /usr/bin/cd. See the csh(1) reference page for a description of the built-in command.
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards as follows:
cd: XPG4, XPG4-UNIX
Refer to the
reference page for more information
about industry standards and associated tags.
The pathname (either full or relative) to be used as the new working directory.
The cd command moves you from your present directory to another directory. You must have execute (search) permission in the specified directory.
If you do not specify a directory,
moves you to
your login directory ($HOME
environment). If the specified
directory name is a full pathname, it becomes the current working directory.
A full pathname begins with a / (slash) for the root directory, with a .
(dot) for the current working directory, or with a .. (dot dot) for the parent
directory. If the directory name is not a full pathname,
searches for it relative to one of the paths specified by the
shell variable (or
variable). This variable has the same syntax as, and similar semantics to,
shell variable (or
The following exit values are returned:
The directory was successfully changed.
An error occurred.
To change to your home directory, enter: cd To change to a new directory, enter: cd /usr/include
The following environment variables affect the execution of
A colon-separated list of pathnames that refer to directories.
If the directory operand does not begin with a
character, and the first component is not
.. (dot dot), the
command will search for
relative to each directory named in the
variable, in the order listed. The
new working directory will be set to the first matching directory found. An
empty string in place of a directory pathname represents the current directory.
is not set, it will
be treated as if it were an empty string.
The name of the home directory, used when no
operand is specified.
Provides a default value for the internationalization variables
that are unset or null. If
is unset or null, the corresponding value from the default locale is used.
If any of the internationalization variables contain an invalid setting, the
utility behaves as if none of the variables had been defined.
If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of
all the other internationalization variables.
Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences
of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to
multibyte characters in arguments).
Determines the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic
messages written to standard error.
Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing
A pathname of the previous working directory, used by the
form of the command. The
this variable to your current working directory before changing to a new current
A pathname of the current working directory, set by the
command after it has changed to that directory.
Commands: csh(1), ksh(1), pwd(1), Bourne shell sh(1b), POSIX shell sh(1p)