Content-type: text/html Man page of BUSYBOX

BUSYBOX

Section: busybox (1)
Updated: 2008-09-07
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NAME

BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux  

SYNTAX

 BusyBox <function> [arguments...]  # or

 <function> [arguments...]          # if symlinked

 

DESCRIPTION

BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most of the utilities you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc. The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU counterparts.

BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources in mind. It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or exclude commands (or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to customize your embedded systems. To create a working system, just add /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel. BusyBox provides a fairly complete POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.

BusyBox is extremely configurable. This allows you to include only the components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or 'make menuconfig' to select the functionality that you wish to enable. Then run 'make' to compile BusyBox using your configuration.

After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to install BusyBox. This will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the target directory specified by CONFIG_PREFIX. CONFIG_PREFIX can be set when configuring BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative location at install time (i.e., with a command line like 'make CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo install'). If you enabled any applet installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will also be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.  

USAGE

BusyBox is a multi-call binary. A multi-call binary is an executable program that performs the same job as more than one utility program. That means there is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single binary acts like a large number of utilities. This allows BusyBox to be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them applets) can share code for many common operations.

You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the command line. For example, entering

        /bin/busybox ls

will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.

Of course, adding '/bin/busybox' into every command would be painful. So most people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.

For example, entering

        ln -s /bin/busybox ls
        ./ls

will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if the 'ls' command has been compiled into BusyBox). Generally speaking, you should never need to make all these links yourself, as the BusyBox build system will do this for you when you run the 'make install' command.

If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments, it will provide you with a list of the applets that have been compiled into your BusyBox binary.  

COMMON OPTIONS

Most BusyBox commands support the --help argument to provide a terse runtime description of their behavior. If the CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed usage information will also be available.  

COMMANDS

Currently defined functions include:

        [, [[, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arp, arping, ash, awk, 
        basename, bbconfig, bbsh, brctl, bunzip2, busybox, bzcat, bzip2, 
        cal, cat, catv, chat, chattr, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown, 
        chpasswd, chpst, chroot, chrt, chvt, cksum, clear, cmp, comm, cp, 
        cpio, crond, crontab, cryptpw, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, 
        delgroup, deluser, devfsd, df, dhcprelay, diff, dirname, dmesg, 
        dnsd, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg_deb, du, dumpkmap, dumpleases, e2fsck, 
        echo, ed, eject, env, envdir, envuidgid, ether_wake, expand, 
        expr, fakeidentd, false, fbset, fdflush, fdformat, fdisk, 
        fetchmail, find, findfs, fold, free, freeramdisk, fsck, 
        fsck_minix, ftpget, ftpput, fuser, getenforce, getopt, getsebool, 
        getty, grep, gunzip, gzip, halt, hd, hdparm, head, hexdump, 
        hostid, hostname, httpd, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, 
        ifenslave, ifup, inetd, init, insmod, install, ip, ipaddr, 
        ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink, iproute, iprule, iptunnel, kbd_mode, 
        kill, killall, killall5, klogd, lash, last, length, less, ln, 
        load_policy, loadfont, loadkmap, logger, login, logname, logread, 
        losetup, lpd, lpq, lpr, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lzmacat, makedevs, 
        matchpathcon, md5sum, mdev, mesg, microcom, mkdir, mke2fs, 
        mkfifo, mkfs_minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, modprobe, more, mount, 
        mountpoint, mt, mv, nameif, nc, netstat, nice, nmeter, nohup, 
        nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pgrep, pidof, ping, ping6, 
        pivot_root, pkill, poweroff, printenv, printf, ps, pscan, pwd, 
        raidautorun, rdate, readahead, readlink, readprofile, realpath, 
        reboot, renice, reset, resize, restorecon, rm, rmdir, rmmod, 
        route, rpm, rpm2cpio, rtcwake, run_parts, runcon, runlevel, 
        runsv, runsvdir, rx, script, sed, selinuxenabled, sendmail, seq, 
        sestatus, setarch, setconsole, setenforce, setfiles, setkeycodes, 
        setlogcons, setsebool, setsid, setuidgid, sha1sum, slattach, 
        sleep, softlimit, sort, split, start_stop_daemon, stat, strings, 
        stty, su, sulogin, sum, sv, svlogd, swapoff, swapon, switch_root, 
        sync, sysctl, syslogd, tac, tail, tar, taskset, tcpsvd, tee, 
        telnet, telnetd, test, tftp, tftpd, time, top, touch, tr, 
        traceroute, true, tty, ttysize, tune2fs, udhcpc, udhcpd, udpsvd, 
        umount, uname, uncompress, unexpand, uniq, unix2dos, unlzma, 
        unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi, vlock, 
        watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, zcip

 

COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS

addgroup
addgroup [-g GID] [user_name] group_name

Add a group or add an user to a group

Options:

        -g GID  Group id

adduser
adduser [OPTIONS] user_name

Add an user

Options:

        -h DIR          Home directory
        -g GECOS        GECOS field
        -s SHELL        Login shell
        -G GROUP        Add user to existing group
        -S              Create a system user
        -D              Do not assign a password
        -H              Do not create home directory

adjtimex
adjtimex [-q] [-o offset] [-f frequency] [-p timeconstant] [-t tick]

Read and optionally set system timebase parameters. See adjtimex(2).

Options:

        -q              Quiet
        -o offset       Time offset, microseconds
        -f frequency    Frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
                        (positive values make clock run faster)
        -t tick         Microseconds per tick, usually 10000
        -p timeconstant

ar
ar [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

Extract or list FILES from an ar archive

Options:

        -o      Preserve original dates
        -p      Extract to stdout
        -t      List
        -x      Extract
        -v      Verbose

arp
arp [-vn]   [-H type] [-i if] -a [hostname]
[-v]             [-i if] -d hostname [pub]
[-v]    [-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [temp]
[-v]    [-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [netmask nm] pub
[-v]    [-H type] [-i if] -Ds hostname ifa [netmask nm] pub

Manipulate ARP cache

Options:

        -a              Display (all) hosts
        -s              Set new ARP entry
        -d              Delete a specified entry
        -v              Verbose
        -n              Don't resolve names
        -i IF           Network interface
        -D              Read <hwaddr> from given device
        -A, -p AF       Protocol family
        -H HWTYPE       Hardware address type

arping
arping [-fqbDUA] [-c count] [-w timeout] [-I dev] [-s sender] target

Send ARP requests/replies

Options:

        -f              Quit on first ARP reply
        -q              Quiet
        -b              Keep broadcasting, don't go unicast
        -D              Duplicated address detection mode
        -U              Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbors
        -A              ARP answer mode, update your neighbors
        -c N            Stop after sending N ARP requests
        -w timeout      Time to wait for ARP reply, in seconds
        -I dev          Interface to use (default eth0)
        -s sender       Sender IP address
        target          Target IP address

ash
ash [FILE]... or: ash -c command [args]...

The ash shell

awk
awk [OPTION]... [program-text] [FILE...]

Options:

        -v var=val      Set variable
        -F sep          Use sep as field separator
        -f file         Read program from file

basename
basename FILE [SUFFIX]

Strip directory path and suffixes from FILE. If specified, also remove any trailing SUFFIX.

Example:

        $ basename /usr/local/bin/foo
        foo
        $ basename /usr/local/bin/
        bin
        $ basename /foo/bar.txt .txt
        bar

bbconfig
bbconfig

Print the config file which built busybox

bbsh
bbsh [FILE]... or: bbsh -c command [args]...

The bbsh shell (command interpreter)

brctl
brctl COMMAND [BRIDGE [INTERFACE]]

Manage ethernet bridges.

Commands:

        addbr BRIDGE            Create BRIDGE
        delbr BRIDGE            Delete BRIDGE
        addif BRIDGE IFACE      Add IFACE to BRIDGE
        delif BRIDGE IFACE      Delete IFACE from BRIDGE
        setageing BRIDGE TIME           Set ageing time
        setfd BRIDGE TIME               Set bridge forward delay
        sethello BRIDGE TIME            Set hello time
        setmaxage BRIDGE TIME           Set max message age
        setpathcost BRIDGE COST         Set path cost
        setportprio BRIDGE PRIO         Set port priority
        setbridgeprio BRIDGE PRIO       Set bridge priority
        stp BRIDGE [1|0]                STP on/off

bunzip2
bunzip2 [OPTION]... [FILE]

Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-' or omitted)

Options:

        -c      Write to standard output
        -f      Force

busybox
busybox

Hello world!

bzcat
bzcat FILE

Uncompress to stdout

bzip2
bzip2 [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Compress FILE(s) with bzip2 algorithm. When FILE is '-' or unspecified, reads standard input. Implies -c.

Options:

        -c      Write to standard output
        -d      Decompress
        -f      Force
        -1..-9  Compression level

cal
cal [-jy] [[month] year]

Display a calendar

Options:

        -j      Use julian dates
        -y      Display the entire year

cat
cat [-u] [FILE]...

Concatenate FILE(s) and print them to stdout

Options:

        -u      Use unbuffered i/o (ignored)

Example:

        $ cat /proc/uptime
        110716.72 17.67

catv
catv [-etv] [FILE]...

Display nonprinting characters as ^x or M-x

Options:

        -e      End each line with $
        -t      Show tabs as ^I
        -v      Don't use ^x or M-x escapes

chat
chat EXPECT [SEND [EXPECT [SEND...]]]

Useful for interacting with a modem connected to stdin/stdout. A script consists of one or more ``expect-send'' pairs of strings, each pair is a pair of arguments. Example: chat '' ATZ OK ATD123456 CONNECT '' ogin: pppuser word: ppppass '~'

chattr
chattr [-R] [-+=AacDdijsStTu] [-v version] files...

Change file attributes on an ext2 fs

Modifiers:

        -       Remove attributes
        +       Add attributes
        =       Set attributes
Attributes:

        A       Don't track atime
        a       Append mode only
        c       Enable compress
        D       Write dir contents synchronously
        d       Do not backup with dump
        i       Cannot be modified (immutable)
        j       Write all data to journal first
        s       Zero disk storage when deleted
        S       Write file contents synchronously
        t       Disable tail-merging of partial blocks with other files
        u       Allow file to be undeleted
Options:

        -R      Recursively list subdirectories
        -v      Set the file's version/generation number

chcon
chcon [OPTIONS] CONTEXT FILE...         chcon [OPTIONS] [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-l RANGE] [-t TYPE] FILE...
        chcon [OPTIONS] --reference=RFILE FILE...

Change the security context of each FILE to CONTEXT

        -v,--verbose            Verbose
        -c,--changes            Report changes made
        -h,--no-dereference     Affect symlinks instead of their targets
        -f,--silent,--quiet     Suppress most error messages
        --reference=RFILE       Use RFILE's group instead of using a CONTEXT value
        -u,--user=USER          Set user/role/type/range in the target
        -r,--role=ROLE          security context
        -t,--type=TYPE
        -l,--range=RANGE
        -R,--recursive          Recurse subdirectories

chgrp
chgrp [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...

Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP

Options:

        -R      Recurse directories
        -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
        -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
        -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
        -P      Do not traverse symlinks (default)
        -c      List changed files
        -v      Verbose
        -f      Hide errors

Example:

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo
        -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
        $ chgrp root /tmp/foo
        $ ls -l /tmp/foo
        -r--r--r--    1 andersen root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

chmod
chmod [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst

Options:

        -R      Recurse directories
        -c      List changed files
        -v      List all files
        -f      Hide errors

Example:

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo
        -rw-rw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
        $ chmod u+x /tmp/foo
        $ ls -l /tmp/foo
        -rwxrw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo*
        $ chmod 444 /tmp/foo
        $ ls -l /tmp/foo
        -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

chown
chown [-RhLHPcvf]... OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP

Options:

        -R      Recurse directories
        -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
        -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
        -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
        -P      Do not traverse symlinks (default)
        -c      List changed files
        -v      List all files
        -f      Hide errors

Example:

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo
        -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
        $ chown root /tmp/foo
        $ ls -l /tmp/foo
        -r--r--r--    1 root     andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
        $ chown root.root /tmp/foo
        ls -l /tmp/foo
        -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

chpasswd
chpasswd [--md5|--encrypt]

Read user:password information from stdin and update /etc/passwd accordingly.

Options:

        -e,--encrypt    Supplied passwords are in encrypted form
        -m,--md5        Use MD5 encryption instead of DES

chpst
chpst [-vP012] [-u user[:group]] [-U user[:group]] [-e dir] [-/ dir] [-n nice] [-m bytes] [-d bytes] [-o files] [-p processes] [-f bytes] [-c bytes] prog args

Change the process state and run specified program

Options:

        -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid and gid
        -U USER[:GRP]   Set $UID and $GID in environment
        -e DIR          Set environment variables as specified by files
                        in DIR: file=1st_line_of_file
        -/ DIR          Chroot to DIR
        -n INC          Add INC to nice value
        -m BYTES        Limit data segment, stack segment, locked physical pages,
                        and total of all segment per process to BYTES each
        -d BYTES        Limit data segment
        -o N            Limit the number of open file descriptors per process to N
        -p N            Limit number of processes per uid to N
        -f BYTES        Limit output file size to BYTES
        -c BYTES        Limit core file size to BYTES
        -v              Verbose
        -P              Run prog in a new process group
        -0              Close standard input
        -1              Close standard output
        -2              Close standard error

chroot
chroot NEWROOT [COMMAND...]

Run COMMAND with root directory set to NEWROOT

Example:

        $ ls -l /bin/ls
        lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root          12 Apr 13 00:46 /bin/ls -> /BusyBox
        # mount /dev/hdc1 /mnt -t minix
        # chroot /mnt
        # ls -l /bin/ls
        -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        40816 Feb  5 07:45 /bin/ls*

chrt
chrt [OPTION]... [prio] [pid | command [arg]...]

Manipulate real-time attributes of a process

Options:

        -p      Operate on pid
        -r      Set scheduling policy to SCHED_RR
        -f      Set scheduling policy to SCHED_FIFO
        -o      Set scheduling policy to SCHED_OTHER
        -m      Show min and max priorities

Example:

        $ chrt -r 4 sleep 900; x=$!
        $ chrt -f -p 3 $x
        You need CAP_SYS_NICE privileges to set scheduling attributes of a process

chvt
chvt N

Change the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN

cksum
cksum FILES...

Calculate the CRC32 checksums of FILES

clear
clear

Clear screen

cmp
cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]

Compares FILE1 vs stdin if FILE2 is not specified

Options:

        -l      Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
                for all differing bytes
        -s      Quiet

comm
comm [-123] FILE1 FILE2

Compare FILE1 to FILE2, or to stdin if - is specified

Options:

        -1      Suppress lines unique to FILE1
        -2      Suppress lines unique to FILE2
        -3      Suppress lines common to both files

cp
cp [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST

Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

Options:

        -a      Same as -dpR
        -c      Preserve security context
        -d,-P   Preserve links
        -H,-L   Dereference all symlinks (default)
        -p      Preserve file attributes if possible
        -f      Force overwrite
        -i      Prompt before overwrite
        -R,-r   Recurse directories
        -l,-s   Create (sym)links

cpio
cpio -[dimtuv][F cpiofile]

Extract or list files from a cpio archive Main operation mode:

        d       Make leading directories
        i       Extract
        m       Preserve mtime
        t       List
        v       Verbose
        u       Unconditional overwrite
        F       Input from file

crond
crond -fbS -l N -d N -L LOGFILE -c DIR

        -f      Foreground
        -b      Background (default)
        -S      Log to syslog (default)
        -l      Set log level. 0 is the most verbose, default 8
        -d      Set log level, log to stderr
        -L      Log to file
        -c      Working dir

crontab
crontab [-c DIR] [-u USER] [-ler]|[FILE]

        -c      Crontab directory
        -u      User
        -l      List crontab
        -e      Edit crontab
        -r      Delete crontab
        FILE    Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)

cryptpw
cryptpw [-a des|md5] [string]

Output crypted string. If string isn't supplied on cmdline, read it from stdin.

Options:

        -a      Algorithm to use (default: md5)

cut
cut [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print selected fields from each input FILE to standard output

Options:

        -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST
        -c LIST Output only characters from LIST
        -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
        -s      Output only the lines containing delimiter
        -f N    Print only these fields
        -n      Ignored

Example:

        $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 1 -d ' '
        Hello
        $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 2 -d ' '
        world

date
date [OPTION]... [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]] [+FORMAT]

Display current time in the given FORMAT, or set system date

Options:

        -R              Output RFC-822 compliant date string
        -d STRING       Display time described by STRING, not 'now'
        -I[TIMESPEC]    Output an ISO-8601 compliant date/time string
                        TIMESPEC='date' (or missing) for date only,
                        'hours', 'minutes', or 'seconds' for date and
                        time to the indicated precision
        -D hint         Use 'hint' as date format, via strptime()
        -s STRING       Set time described by STRING
        -r FILE         Display the last modification time of FILE
        -u              Print or sets Coordinated Universal Time

Example:

        $ date
        Wed Apr 12 18:52:41 MDT 2000

dc
dc expression...

This is a Tiny RPN calculator that understands the following operations: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %, mod, **, exp, and, or, not, eor. For example: 'dc 2 2 add' -> 4, and 'dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + /' -> 16.

Options: p - Print the value on the top of the stack, without altering the stack f - Print the entire contents of the stack without altering anything o - Pop the value off the top of the stack and use it to set the output radix

    Only 10 and 16 are supported

Example:

        $ dc 2 2 + p
        4
        $ dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + / p
        16
        $ dc 0 1 and p
        0
        $ dc 0 1 or p
        1
        $ echo 72 9 div 8 mul p | dc
        64

dd
dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]         [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync]

Copy a file with converting and formatting

Options:

        if=FILE         Read from FILE instead of stdin
        of=FILE         Write to FILE instead of stdout
        bs=N            Read and write N bytes at a time
        ibs=N           Read N bytes at a time
        obs=N           Write N bytes at a time
        count=N         Copy only N input blocks
        skip=N          Skip N input blocks
        seek=N          Skip N output blocks
        conv=notrunc    Don't truncate output file
        conv=noerror    Continue after read errors
        conv=sync       Pad blocks with zeros

Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k (x1024), MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G (x1073741824)

Example:

        $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram1 bs=1M count=4
        4+0 records in
        4+0 records out

deallocvt
deallocvt [N]

Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

delgroup
delgroup [USER] GROUP

Delete group GROUP from the system or user USER from group GROUP

deluser
deluser USER

Delete user USER from the system

devfsd
devfsd mntpnt [-v][-fg][-np]

Manage devfs permissions and old device name symlinks

Options:

        mntpnt  The mount point where devfs is mounted
        -v      Print the protocol version numbers for devfsd
                and the kernel-side protocol version and exit
        -fg     Run in foreground
        -np     Exit after parsing the configuration file
                and processing synthetic REGISTER events,
                do not poll for events

df
df     DF_HAS_OPTIONS(``[-'') hmki     DF_HAS_OPTIONS(``] '') "[FILESYSTEM...]

Print filesystem usage statistics

        DF_HAS_OPTIONS("
Options:")       

        -h      Human readable (e.g. 1K 243M 2G)
        -m      1024*1024 blocks
        -k      1024 blocks
        -i      Inodes

Example:

        $ df
        Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
        /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /
        /dev/sda1                64216     36364     27852  57% /boot
        $ df /dev/sda3
        Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
        /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /

dhcprelay
dhcprelay [client_device_list] [server_device]

Relay dhcp requests from client devices to server device

diff
diff [-abdiNqrTstw] [-L LABEL] [-S FILE] [-U LINES] FILE1 FILE2

Compare files line by line and output the differences between them. This implementation supports unified diffs only.

Options:

        -a      Treat all files as text
        -b      Ignore changes in the amount of whitespace
        -d      Try hard to find a smaller set of changes
        -i      Ignore case differences
        -L      Use LABEL instead of the filename in the unified header
        -N      Treat absent files as empty
        -q      Output only whether files differ
        -r      Recursively compare subdirectories
        -S      Start with FILE when comparing directories
        -T      Make tabs line up by prefixing a tab when necessary
        -s      Report when two files are the same
        -t      Expand tabs to spaces in output
        -U      Output LINES lines of context
        -w      Ignore all whitespace

dirname
dirname FILENAME

Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME

Example:

        $ dirname /tmp/foo
        /tmp
        $ dirname /tmp/foo/
        /tmp

dmesg
dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

Print or control the kernel ring buffer

Options:

        -c              Clear ring buffer after printing
        -n LEVEL        Set console logging level
        -s SIZE         Buffer size

dnsd
dnsd [-c config] [-t seconds] [-p port] [-i iface-ip] [-d]

Small static DNS server daemon

Options:

        -c      Config filename
        -t      TTL in seconds
        -p      Listening port
        -i      Listening ip (default all)
        -d      Daemonize

dos2unix
dos2unix [option] [FILE]

Convert FILE from dos to unix format. When no file is given, use stdin/stdout.

Options:

        -u      dos2unix
        -d      unix2dos

dpkg
dpkg [-ilCPru] [-F option] package_name

Install, remove and manage Debian packages

Options:

        -i              Install the package
        -l              List of installed packages
        -C              Configure an unpackaged package
        -F depends      Ignore dependency problems
        -P              Purge all files of a package
        -r              Remove all but the configuration files for a package
        -u              Unpack a package, but don't configure it

dpkg-deb
dpkg-deb [-cefxX] FILE [argument]

Perform actions on Debian packages (.debs)

Options:

        -c      List contents of filesystem tree
        -e      Extract control files to [argument] directory
        -f      Display control field name starting with [argument]
        -x      Extract packages filesystem tree to directory
        -X      Verbose extract

Example:

        $ dpkg-deb -X ./busybox_0.48-1_i386.deb /tmp

du
du [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...

Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory. Disk space is printed in units of 1024 bytes.

Options:

        -a      Show file sizes too
        -H      Follow symlinks on command line
        -L      Follow all symlinks
        -d N    Limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N
        -c      Show grand total
        -l      Count sizes many times if hard linked
        -s      Display only a total for each argument
        -x      Skip directories on different filesystems
        -h      Sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
        -m      Sizes in megabytes
        -k      Sizes in kilobytes (default)

Example:

        $ du
        16      ./CVS
        12      ./kernel-patches/CVS
        80      ./kernel-patches
        12      ./tests/CVS
        36      ./tests
        12      ./scripts/CVS
        16      ./scripts
        12      ./docs/CVS
        104     ./docs
        2417    .

dumpkmap
dumpkmap

Print out a binary keyboard translation table to standard output

Example:

        $ dumpkmap > keymap

dumpleases
dumpleases [-r|-a] [-f LEASEFILE]

Display DHCP leases granted by udhcpd

Options:

        -f,--file=FILE  Leases file to load
        -r,--remaining  Interpret lease times as time remaining
        -a,--absolute   Interpret lease times as expire time

e2fsck
e2fsck [-panyrcdfvstDFSV] [-b superblock] [-B blocksize] [-I inode_buffer_blocks] [-P process_inode_size] [-l|-L bad_blocks_file] [-C fd] [-j external_journal] [-E extended-options] device

Check ext2/ext3 file system

Options:

        -p              Automatic repair (no questions)
        -n              Make no changes to the filesystem
        -y              Assume 'yes' to all questions
        -c              Check for bad blocks and add them to the badblock list
        -f              Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean
        -v              Verbose
        -b superblock   Use alternative superblock
        -B blocksize    Force blocksize when looking for superblock
        -j journal      Set location of the external journal
        -l file         Add to badblocks list
        -L file         Set badblocks list

echo
echo [-neE] [ARG...]

Print the specified ARGs to stdout

Options:

        -n      Suppress trailing newline
        -e      Interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., \t=tab)
        -E      Disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters

Example:

        $ echo "Erik is cool"
        Erik is cool
        $ echo -e "Erik\nis\ncool"
        Erik
        is
        cool
        $ echo "Erik\nis\ncool"
        Erik\nis\ncool

ed
ed #define ed_full_usage
eject
eject [-t] [-T] [DEVICE]

Eject specified DEVICE (or default /dev/cdrom)

Options:

        -s      SCSI device
        -t      Close tray
        -T      Open/close tray (toggle)

env
env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [command]

Print the current environment or run a program after setting up the specified environment

Options:

        -, -i   Start with an empty environment
        -u      Remove variable from the environment

envdir
envdir dir prog args

Set various environment variables as specified by files in the directory dir, then run prog

envuidgid
envuidgid account prog args

Set $UID to account's uid and $GID to account's gid, then run prog

ether_wake
ether_wake [-b] [-i iface] [-p aa:bb:cc:dd[:ee:ff]] MAC

Send a magic packet to wake up sleeping machines. MAC must be a station address (00:11:22:33:44:55) or a hostname with a known 'ethers' entry.

Options:

        -b              Send wake-up packet to the broadcast address
        -i iface        Interface to use (default eth0)
        -p pass         Append four or six byte password PW to the packet

expand
expand [-i] [-t NUM] [FILE|-]

Convert tabs to spaces, writing to standard output.

Options:

        -i,--initial    Do not convert tabs after non blanks
        -t,--tabs=N     Tabstops every N chars

expr
expr EXPRESSION

Print the value of EXPRESSION to standard output.

EXPRESSION may be:

        ARG1 | ARG2     ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
        ARG1 & ARG2     ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
        ARG1 < ARG2     1 if ARG1 is less than ARG2, else 0. Similarly:
        ARG1 <= ARG2
        ARG1 = ARG2
        ARG1 != ARG2
        ARG1 >= ARG2
        ARG1 > ARG2
        ARG1 + ARG2     Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:
        ARG1 - ARG2
        ARG1 * ARG2
        ARG1 / ARG2
        ARG1 % ARG2
        STRING : REGEXP         Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
        match STRING REGEXP     Same as STRING : REGEXP
        substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
        index STRING CHARS      Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0
        length STRING           Length of STRING
        quote TOKEN             Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
                                it is a keyword like 'match' or an
                                operator like '/'
        (EXPRESSION)            Value of EXPRESSION

Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells. Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the number of characters matched or 0.

fakeidentd
fakeidentd [-fiw] [-b ADDR] [STRING]

Provide fake ident (auth) service

Options:

        -f      Run in foreground
        -i      Inetd mode
        -w      Inetd 'wait' mode
        -b ADDR Bind to specified address
        STRING  Ident answer string (default is 'nobody')

false
false

Return an exit code of FALSE (1)

Example:

        $ false
        $ echo $?
        1

fbset
fbset [options] [mode]

Show and modify frame buffer settings

Example:

        $ fbset
        mode "1024x768-76"
                # D: 78.653 MHz, H: 59.949 kHz, V: 75.694 Hz
                geometry 1024 768 1024 768 16
                timings 12714 128 32 16 4 128 4
                accel false
                rgba 5/11,6/5,5/0,0/0
        endmode

fdflush
fdflush DEVICE

Force floppy disk drive to detect disk change

fdformat
fdformat [-n] DEVICE

Format floppy disk

Options:

        -n      Don't verify after format

fdisk
fdisk [-uls] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ] DISK

Change partition table

Options:

        -u              Start and End are in sectors (instead of cylinders)
        -l              Show partition table for each DISK, then exit
        -s              Show partition sizes in kb for each DISK, then exit
        -b 2048         (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors
        -C CYLINDERS    Set number of cylinders/heads/sectors
        -H HEADS

        -S SECTORS

fetchmail
fetchmail [-w timeout] [-U user] -P password [-X] [-t] [-z] server[:port] maildir [prog]

Fetch content of remote mailbox to local Maildir.

Options:

        -w timeout      Set timeout on network operations
        -U username     Authenticate with specified username/password
        -P password
        -X              Use openssl connection helper for secured servers
        -t              Get only headers
        -z              Delete messages on server
        prog            Run prog <message_file> on message delivery

find
find [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]

Search for files. The default PATH is the current directory, default EXPRESSION is '-print'

EXPRESSION may consist of:

        -follow         Dereference symlinks
        -xdev           Don't descend directories on other filesystems
        -maxdepth N     Descend at most N levels. -maxdepth 0 applies
                        tests/actions to command line arguments only
        -name PATTERN   File name (w/o directory name) matches PATTERN
        -iname PATTERN  Case insensitive -name
        -path PATTERN   Path matches PATTERN
        -regex PATTERN  Path matches regex PATTERN
        -type X         File type is X (X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
        -perm NNN       Permissions match any of (+NNN), all of (-NNN),
                        or exactly (NNN)
        -mtime DAYS     Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                        or exactly (N) days
        -mmin MINS      Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                        or exactly (N) minutes
        -newer FILE     Modified time is more recent than FILE's
        -inum N         File has inode number N
        -user NAME      File is owned by user NAME (numeric user ID allowed)
        -group NAME     File belongs to group NAME (numeric group ID allowed)
        -depth          Process directory name after traversing it
        -size N[bck]    File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.)).
                        +/-N: file size is bigger/smaller than N
        -print          Print (default and assumed)
        -print0         Delimit output with null characters rather than
                        newlines        USE_FEATURE_FIND_CONTEXT ( 
        -context        File has specified security context")    
        -exec CMD ARG ; Execute CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the
                        matching files
        -prune          Stop traversing current subtree
        -delete         Delete files, turns on -depth option
        (EXPR)          Group an expression

Example:

        $ find / -name passwd
        /etc/passwd

findfs
findfs LABEL=label or UUID=uuid

Find a filesystem device based on a label or UUID.

Example:

        $ findfs LABEL=MyDevice

fold
fold [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]

Wrap input lines in each FILE (standard input by default), writing to standard output

Options:

        -b      Count bytes rather than columns
        -s      Break at spaces
        -w      Use WIDTH columns instead of 80

free
free

Display the amount of free and used system memory

Example:

        $ free
                      total         used         free       shared      buffers
          Mem:       257628       248724         8904        59644        93124
         Swap:       128516         8404       120112
        Total:       386144       257128       129016

freeramdisk
freeramdisk DEVICE

Free all memory used by the specified ramdisk

Example:

        $ freeramdisk /dev/ram2

fsck
fsck [-ANPRTV] [-C fd] [-t fstype] [fs-options] [filesys...]

Check and repair filesystems

Options:

        -A      Walk /etc/fstab and check all filesystems
        -N      Don't execute, just show what would be done
        -P      With -A, check filesystems in parallel
        -R      With -A, skip the root filesystem
        -T      Don't show title on startup
        -V      Verbose
        -C n    Write status information to specified filedescriptor
        -t type List of filesystem types to check

fsck.minix
fsck.minix [-larvsmf] /dev/name

Perform a consistency check for MINIX filesystems

Options:

        -l      List all filenames
        -r      Perform interactive repairs
        -a      Perform automatic repairs
        -v      Verbose
        -s      Output super-block information
        -m      Activate MINIX-like "mode not cleared" warnings
        -f      Force file system check

ftpget
ftpget [options] remote-host local-file remote-file

Retrieve a remote file via FTP

Options:

        -c,--continue   Continue previous transfer
        -v,--verbose    Verbose
        -u,--username   Username
        -p,--password   Password
        -P,--port       Port number

ftpput
ftpput [options] remote-host remote-file local-file

Store a local file on a remote machine via FTP

Options:

        -v,--verbose    Verbose
        -u,--username   Username
        -p,--password   Password
        -P,--port       Port number

fuser
fuser [options] FILE or PORT/PROTO

Find processes which use FILEs or PORTs

Options:

        -m      Find processes which use same fs as FILEs
        -4      Search only IPv4 space
        -6      Search only IPv6 space
        -s      Silent: just exit with 0 if any processes are found
        -k      Kill found processes (otherwise display PIDs)
        -SIGNAL Signal to send (default: TERM)

getenforce
getenforce #define getenforce_full_usage
getopt
getopt [OPTIONS]...

Parse command options

        -a,--alternative                Allow long options starting with single -
        -l,--longoptions=longopts       Long options to be recognized
        -n,--name=progname              The name under which errors are reported
        -o,--options=optstring          Short options to be recognized
        -q,--quiet                      Disable error reporting by getopt(3)
        -Q,--quiet-output               No normal output
        -s,--shell=shell                Set shell quoting conventions
        -T,--test                       Test for getopt(1) version
        -u,--unquoted                   Don't quote the output

Example:

        $ cat getopt.test
        #!/bin/sh
        GETOPT=`getopt -o ab:c:: --long a-long,b-long:,c-long:: \
               -n 'example.busybox' -- "$@"`
        if [ $? != 0 ]; then  exit 1; fi
        eval set -- "$GETOPT"
        while true; do
         case $1 in
           -a|--a-long) echo "Option a"; shift;;
           -b|--b-long) echo "Option b, argument '$2'"; shift 2;;
           -c|--c-long)
             case "$2" in
               "") echo "Option c, no argument"; shift 2;;
               *)  echo "Option c, argument '$2'"; shift 2;;
             esac;;
           --) shift; break;;
           *) echo "Internal error!"; exit 1;;
         esac
        done

getsebool
getsebool -a or getsebool boolean...

        -a      Show all SELinux booleans

getty
getty [OPTIONS] BAUD_RATE TTY [TERMTYPE]

Open a tty, prompt for a login name, then invoke /bin/login

Options:

        -h              Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control
        -i              Do not display /etc/issue before running login
        -L              Local line, do not do carrier detect
        -m              Get baud rate from modem's CONNECT status message
        -w              Wait for a CR or LF before sending /etc/issue
        -n              Do not prompt the user for a login name
        -f issue_file   Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue
        -l login_app    Invoke login_app instead of /bin/login
        -t timeout      Terminate after timeout if no username is read
        -I initstring   Init string to send before anything else
        -H login_host   Log login_host into the utmp file as the hostname

grep
grep [-HhrilLnqvsoweFEABC] PATTERN [FILEs...]

Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input

Options:

        -H      Prefix output lines with filename where match was found
        -h      Suppress the prefixing filename on output
        -r      Recurse subdirectories
        -i      Ignore case distinctions
        -l      List names of files that match
        -L      List names of files that do not match
        -n      Print line number with output lines
        -q      Quiet. Return 0 if PATTERN is found, 1 otherwise
        -v      Select non-matching lines
        -s      Suppress file open/read error messages
        -c      Only print count of matching lines
        -o      Show only the part of a line that matches PATTERN
        -m MAX  Match up to MAX times per file
        -w      Match whole words only
        -F      PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings
        -E      PATTERN is an extended regular expression
        -e PTRN Pattern to match
        -f FILE Read pattern from file
        -A      Print NUM lines of trailing context
        -B      Print NUM lines of leading context
        -C      Print NUM lines of output context

Example:

        $ grep root /etc/passwd
        root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
        $ grep ^[rR]oo. /etc/passwd
        root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash

gunzip
gunzip [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Uncompress FILEs (or standard input)

Options:

        -c      Write to standard output
        -f      Force
        -t      Test file integrity

Example:

        $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   557009 Apr 11 10:55 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
        $ gunzip /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
        $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar

gzip
gzip [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Compress FILEs (or standard input)

Options:

        -c      Write to standard output
        -d      Decompress
        -f      Force

Example:

        $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/busybox.tar
        $ gzip /tmp/busybox.tar
        $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   554058 Apr 14 17:49 /tmp/busybox.tar.gz

halt
halt [-d delay] [-n] [-f]

Halt the system

Options:

        -d      Delay interval for halting
        -n      No call to sync()
        -f      Force halt (don't go through init)
        -w      Only write a wtmp record

hd
hd FILE...

hd is an alias for hexdump -C

hdparm
hdparm [options] [device] ..

Options:

        -a      Get/set fs readahead
        -A      Set drive read-lookahead flag (0/1)
        -b      Get/set bus state (0 == off, 1 == on, 2 == tristate)
        -B      Set Advanced Power Management setting (1-255)
        -c      Get/set IDE 32-bit IO setting
        -C      Check IDE power mode status
        -d      Get/set using_dma flag
        -D      Enable/disable drive defect-mgmt
        -f      Flush buffer cache for device on exit
        -g      Display drive geometry
        -h      Display terse usage information
        -i      Display drive identification
        -I      Detailed/current information directly from drive
        -k      Get/set keep_settings_over_reset flag (0/1)
        -K      Set drive keep_features_over_reset flag (0/1)
        -L      Set drive doorlock (0/1) (removable harddisks only)
        -m      Get/set multiple sector count
        -n      Get/set ignore-write-errors flag (0/1)
        -p      Set PIO mode on IDE interface chipset (0,1,2,3,4,...)
        -P      Set drive prefetch count/*   "
        -q      Change next setting quietly" - not supported ib bbox */ 
        -Q      Get/set DMA tagged-queuing depth (if supported)
        -r      Get/set readonly flag (DANGEROUS to set)
        -R      Register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
        -S      Set standby (spindown) timeout
        -t      Perform device read timings
        -T      Perform cache read timings
        -u      Get/set unmaskirq flag (0/1)
        -U      Un-register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
        -v      Defaults; same as -mcudkrag for IDE drives
        -V      Display program version and exit immediately
        -w      Perform device reset (DANGEROUS)
        -W      Set drive write-caching flag (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
        -x      Tristate device for hotswap (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
        -X      Set IDE xfer mode (DANGEROUS)
        -y      Put IDE drive in standby mode
        -Y      Put IDE drive to sleep
        -Z      Disable Seagate auto-powersaving mode
        -z      Re-read partition table

head
head [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print first 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Options:

        -n NUM  Print first NUM lines instead of first 10
        -c NUM  Output the first NUM bytes
        -q      Never output headers giving file names
        -v      Always output headers giving file names

Example:

        $ head -n 2 /etc/passwd
        root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
        daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/bin/sh

hexdump
hexdump [-bcCdefnosvxR] FILE...

Display file(s) or standard input in a user specified format

Options:

        -b              One-byte octal display
        -c              One-byte character display
        -C              Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line
        -d              Two-byte decimal display
        -e FORMAT STRING
        -f FORMAT FILE
        -n LENGTH       Interpret only LENGTH bytes of input
        -o              Two-byte octal display
        -s OFFSET       Skip OFFSET bytes
        -v              Display all input data
        -x              Two-byte hexadecimal display
        -R              Reverse of 'hexdump -Cv'

hostid
hostid

Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine

hostname
hostname [OPTION] [hostname | -F FILE]

Get or set hostname or DNS domain name

Options:

        -s      Short
        -i      Addresses for the hostname
        -d      DNS domain name
        -f      Fully qualified domain name
        -F FILE Use the contents of FILE to specify the hostname

Example:

        $ hostname
        sage

httpd
httpd [-c conffile] [-p [ip:]port] [-i] [-f] [-v[v]] [-u user[:grp]] [-r realm] [-m pass] [-h home] [-d/-e string]

Listen for incoming HTTP requests

Options:

        -c FILE         Configuration file (default httpd.conf)
        -p [IP:]PORT    Bind to ip:port (default *:80)
        -i              Inetd mode
        -f              Do not daemonize
        -v[v]           Verbose
        -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid/gid after binding to port
        -r REALM        Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication
        -m PASS         Crypt PASS with md5 algorithm
        -h HOME         Home directory (default .)
        -e STRING       HTML encode STRING
        -d STRING       URL decode STRING

hwclock
hwclock      [-r|--show] [-s|--hctosys] [-w|--systohc] [-l|--localtime] [-u|--utc] [-f FILE]

Query and set hardware clock (RTC)

Options:

        -r      Show time from hardware clock
        -s      Set system time from hardware clock
        -w      Set hardware clock to system time
        -u      Hardware clock is in UTC
        -l      Hardware clock is in local time
        -f FILE Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)

id
id [OPTIONS]... [USER]

Print information about USER or the current user

Options:

        -Z      Print the security context
        -g      Print group ID
        -u      Print user ID
        -n      Print name instead of a number
        -r      Print real user ID instead of effective ID

Example:

        $ id
        uid=1000(andersen) gid=1000(andersen)

ifconfig
ifconfig [-a] interface [address]

Configure a network interface

Options:

        [add ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
        [del ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
        [[-]broadcast [ADDRESS]] [[-]pointopoint [ADDRESS]]
        [netmask ADDRESS] [dstaddr ADDRESS]
        [outfill NN] [keepalive NN]
        [hw ether ADDRESS] [metric NN] [mtu NN]
        [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]
        [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen NN] [[-]dynamic]
        [mem_start NN] [io_addr NN] [irq NN]
        [up|down] ...

ifdown
ifdown [-ainmvf] ifaces...

Options:

        -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically
        -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
        -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                (note: doesn't disable mappings)
        -m      Don't run any mappings
        -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
        -f      Force de/configuration

ifenslave
ifenslave [-cdf] master-iface <slave-iface...>

Configure network interfaces for parallel routing

Options:

        -c, --change-active     Change active slave
        -d, --detach            Remove slave interface from bonding device
        -f, --force             Force, even if interface is not Ethernet/*   "
        -r, --receive-slave     Create a receive-only slave" */

Example:

        To create a bond device, simply follow these three steps :
        - ensure that the required drivers are properly loaded :
          # modprobe bonding ; modprobe <3c59x|eepro100|pcnet32|tulip|...>
        - assign an IP address to the bond device :
          # ifconfig bond0 <addr> netmask <mask> broadcast <bcast>
        - attach all the interfaces you need to the bond device :
          # ifenslave bond0 eth0 eth1 eth2
          If bond0 didn't have a MAC address, it will take eth0's. Then, all
          interfaces attached AFTER this assignment will get the same MAC addr.
        
          To detach a dead interface without setting the bond device down :
           # ifenslave -d bond0 eth1
        
          To set the bond device down and automatically release all the slaves :
           # ifconfig bond0 down
        
          To change active slave :
           # ifenslave -c bond0 eth0

ifup
ifup [-ainmvf] ifaces...

Options:

        -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically
        -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
        -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                (note: doesn't disable mappings)
        -m      Don't run any mappings
        -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
        -f      Force de/configuration

inetd
inetd [-fe] [-q N] [-R N] [CONFFILE]

Listen for network connections and launch programs

Options:

        -f      Run in foreground
        -e      Log to stderr
        -q N    Socket listen queue (default: 128)
        -R N    Pause services after N connects/min
                (default: 0 - disabled)

init
init

Init is the parent of all processes

This version of init is designed to be run only by the kernel.

BusyBox init doesn't support multiple runlevels. The runlevels field of the /etc/inittab file is completely ignored by BusyBox init. If you want runlevels, use sysvinit.

BusyBox init works just fine without an inittab. If no inittab is found, it has the following default behavior:

        ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS
        ::askfirst:/bin/sh
        ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot
        ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a
        ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r
        ::restart:/sbin/init

if it detects that /dev/console is _not_ a serial console, it will also run:

        tty2::askfirst:/bin/sh
        tty3::askfirst:/bin/sh
        tty4::askfirst:/bin/sh

If you choose to use an /etc/inittab file, the inittab entry format is as follows:

        <id>:<runlevels>:<action>:<process>

        <id>:

                WARNING: This field has a non-traditional meaning for BusyBox init!
                The id field is used by BusyBox init to specify the controlling tty for
                the specified process to run on. The contents of this field are
                appended to "/dev/" and used as-is. There is no need for this field to
                be unique, although if it isn't you may have strange results. If this
                field is left blank, the controlling tty is set to the console. Also
                note that if BusyBox detects that a serial console is in use, then only
                entries whose controlling tty is either the serial console or /dev/null
                will be run. BusyBox init does nothing with utmp. We don't need no
                stinkin' utmp.

        <runlevels>:

                The runlevels field is completely ignored.

        <action>:

                Valid actions include: sysinit, respawn, askfirst, wait,
                once, restart, ctrlaltdel, and shutdown.

                The available actions can be classified into two groups: actions
                that are run only once, and actions that are re-run when the specified
                process exits.

                Run only-once actions:

                        'sysinit' is the first item run on boot. init waits until all
                        sysinit actions are completed before continuing. Following the
                        completion of all sysinit actions, all 'wait' actions are run.
                        'wait' actions, like 'sysinit' actions, cause init to wait until
                        the specified task completes. 'once' actions are asynchronous,
                        therefore, init does not wait for them to complete. 'restart' is
                        the action taken to restart the init process. By default this should
                        simply run /sbin/init, but can be a script which runs pivot_root or it
                        can do all sorts of other interesting things. The 'ctrlaltdel' init
                        actions are run when the system detects that someone on the system
                        console has pressed the CTRL-ALT-DEL key combination. Typically one
                        wants to run 'reboot' at this point to cause the system to reboot.
                        Finally the 'shutdown' action specifies the actions to taken when
                        init is told to reboot. Unmounting filesystems and disabling swap
                        is a very good here.

                Run repeatedly actions:

                        'respawn' actions are run after the 'once' actions. When a process
                        started with a 'respawn' action exits, init automatically restarts
                        it. Unlike sysvinit, BusyBox init does not stop processes from
                        respawning out of control. The 'askfirst' actions acts just like
                        respawn, except that before running the specified process it
                        displays the line "Please press Enter to activate this console."
                        and then waits for the user to press enter before starting the
                        specified process.

                Unrecognized actions (like initdefault) will cause init to emit an
                error message, and then go along with its business. All actions are
                run in the order they appear in /etc/inittab.

        <process>:

                Specifies the process to be executed and its command line.

Example /etc/inittab file:

        # This is run first except when booting in single-user mode
        #
        ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS
        
        # /bin/sh invocations on selected ttys
        #
        # Start an "askfirst" shell on the console (whatever that may be)
        ::askfirst:-/bin/sh
        # Start an "askfirst" shell on /dev/tty2-4
        tty2::askfirst:-/bin/sh
        tty3::askfirst:-/bin/sh
        tty4::askfirst:-/bin/sh
        
        # /sbin/getty invocations for selected ttys
        #
        tty4::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty4
        tty5::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty5
        
        
        # Example of how to put a getty on a serial line (for a terminal)
        #
        #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 9600 vt100
        #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS1 9600 vt100
        #
        # Example how to put a getty on a modem line
        #::respawn:/sbin/getty 57600 ttyS2
        
        # Stuff to do when restarting the init process
        ::restart:/sbin/init
        
        # Stuff to do before rebooting
        ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot
        ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r
        ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a

insmod
insmod [OPTION]... MODULE [symbol=value]...

Load the specified kernel modules into the kernel

Options:

        -f      Force module to load into the wrong kernel version
        -k      Make module autoclean-able
        -v      Verbose
        -q      Quiet
        -L      Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module
        -m      Output load map to stdout
        -o NAME Set internal module name to NAME
        -x      Do not export externs

install
install [-cgmops] [sources] dest|directory

Copy files and set attributes

Options:

        -c      Copy the file, default
        -d      Create directories
        -g      Set group ownership
        -m      Set permissions
        -o      Set ownership
        -p      Preserve date
        -s      Strip symbol tables
        -Z      Set security context of copy

ip
ip [OPTIONS] {address | route | link | tunnel | rule} {COMMAND}

ip [OPTIONS] OBJECT {COMMAND} where OBJECT := {address | route | link | tunnel | rule} OPTIONS := { -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | link } | -o[neline] }

ipaddr
ipaddr { {add|del} IFADDR dev STRING | {show|flush}                 [dev STRING] [to PREFIX] }

ipaddr {add|delete} IFADDR dev STRING ipaddr {show|flush} [dev STRING] [scope SCOPE-ID]

        [to PREFIX] [label PATTERN]
        IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX
        [broadcast ADDR] [anycast ADDR]
        [label STRING] [scope SCOPE-ID]
        SCOPE-ID := [host | link | global | NUMBER]

ipcalc
ipcalc [OPTION]... ADDRESS[[/]NETMASK] [NETMASK]

Calculate IP network settings from a IP address

Options:

        -b,--broadcast  Display calculated broadcast address
        -n,--network    Display calculated network address
        -m,--netmask    Display default netmask for IP
        -p,--prefix     Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK
        -h,--hostname   Display first resolved host name
        -s,--silent     Don't ever display error messages               )

ipcrm
ipcrm [-MQS key] [-mqs id]

Upper-case options MQS remove an object by shmkey value. Lower-case options remove an object by shmid value.

Options:

        -mM     Remove memory segment after last detach
        -qQ     Remove message queue
        -sS     Remove semaphore

ipcs
ipcs [[-smq] -i shmid] | [[-asmq] [-tcplu]]

        -i      Show specific resource
Resource specification:

        -m      Shared memory segments
        -q      Message queues
        -s      Semaphore arrays
        -a      All (default)
Output format:

        -t      Time
        -c      Creator
        -p      Pid
        -l      Limits
        -u      Summary

iplink
iplink

iplink set DEVICE { up | down | arp | multicast { on | off } |

                        dynamic { on | off } |
                        mtu MTU }
iplink show [DEVICE]

iproute
iproute { list | flush | { add | del | change | append |                 replace | monitor } ROUTE }

iproute { list | flush } SELECTOR iproute get ADDRESS [from ADDRESS iif STRING]

                        [oif STRING]  [tos TOS]
iproute { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE

                        SELECTOR := [root PREFIX] [match PREFIX] [proto RTPROTO]
                        ROUTE := [TYPE] PREFIX [tos TOS] [proto RTPROTO]

iprule
iprule {[list | add | del] RULE}

iprule [list | add | del] SELECTOR ACTION

        SELECTOR := [from PREFIX] [to PREFIX] [tos TOS] [fwmark FWMARK]
                        [dev STRING] [pref NUMBER]
        ACTION := [table TABLE_ID] [nat ADDRESS]
                        [prohibit | reject | unreachable]
                        [realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM]
        TABLE_ID := [local | main | default | NUMBER]

iptunnel
iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [NAME]         [mode { ipip | gre | sit }]
        [remote ADDR] [local ADDR] [ttl TTL]

iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [NAME]

        [mode { ipip | gre | sit }] [remote ADDR] [local ADDR]
        [[i|o]seq] [[i|o]key KEY] [[i|o]csum]
        [ttl TTL] [tos TOS] [[no]pmtudisc] [dev PHYS_DEV]

kbd_mode
kbd_mode [-a|k|s|u]

Report or set the keyboard mode

Options set mode:

        -a      Default (ASCII)
        -k      Medium-raw (keyboard)
        -s      Raw (scancode)
        -u      Unicode (utf-8)

kill
kill [-l] [-signal] process-id...

Send a signal (default is TERM) to the specified process(es)

Options:

        -l      List all signal names and numbers

Example:

        $ ps | grep apache
        252 root     root     S [apache]
        263 www-data www-data S [apache]
        264 www-data www-data S [apache]
        265 www-data www-data S [apache]
        266 www-data www-data S [apache]
        267 www-data www-data S [apache]
        $ kill 252

killall
killall [-l] [-q] [-signal] process-name...

Send a signal (default is TERM) to the specified process(es)

Options:

        -l      List all signal names and numbers
        -q      Do not complain if no processes were killed

Example:

        $ killall apache

killall5
killall5 [-l] [-signal]

Send a signal (default is TERM) to all processes outside current session

Options:

        -l      List all signal names and numbers

klogd
klogd [-c n] [-n]

Kernel logger

Options:

        -c n    Set the default log level of console messages to n
        -n      Run in foreground

lash
lash [FILE]... or: sh -c command [args]...

lash is deprecated, please use hush

last
last

Show listing of the last users that logged into the system

length
length STRING

Print STRING's length

Example:

        $ length Hello
        5

less
less [-EMNmh~?] [FILE...]

View a file or list of files. The position within files can be changed, and files can be manipulated in various ways.

Options:

        -E      Quit once the end of a file is reached
        -M,-m   Display a status line containing the line numbers
                and percentage through the file
        -N      Prefix line numbers to each line
        -~      Suppress ~s displayed past the end of the file

ln
ln [OPTION] TARGET... LINK_NAME|DIRECTORY

Create a link named LINK_NAME or DIRECTORY to the specified TARGET. Use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.

Options:

        -s      Make symlinks instead of hardlinks
        -f      Remove existing destination files
        -n      Don't dereference symlinks - treat like normal file
        -b      Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation
        -S suf  Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files

Example:

        $ ln -s BusyBox /tmp/ls
        $ ls -l /tmp/ls
        lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            7 Apr 12 18:39 ls -> BusyBox*

load_policy
load_policy
loadfont
loadfont < font

Load a console font from standard input

Example:

        $ loadfont < /etc/i18n/fontname

loadkmap
loadkmap < keymap

Load a binary keyboard translation table from standard input

Example:

        $ loadkmap < /etc/i18n/lang-keymap

logger
logger [OPTION]... [MESSAGE]

Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.

Options:

        -s      Log to stderr as well as the system log
        -t TAG  Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
        -p PRIO Priority (numeric or facility.level pair)

Example:

        $ logger "hello"

login
login [-p] [-h HOST] [[-f] USER]

Begin a new session on the system

Options:

        -f      Do not authenticate (user already authenticated)
        -h      Name of the remote host
        -p      Preserve environment

logname
logname

Print the name of the current user

Example:

        $ logname
        root

logread
logread [OPTION]...

Show messages in syslogd's circular buffer

Options:

        -f      Output data as log grows

losetup
losetup [-o OFS] LOOPDEV FILE - associate loop devices         losetup -d LOOPDEV - disassociate
        losetup [-f] - show

Options:

        -o OFS  Start OFS bytes into FILE
        -f      Show first free loop device

No arguments will display all current associations. One argument (losetup /dev/loop1) will display the current association (if any), or disassociate it (with -d). The display shows the offset and filename of the file the loop device is currently bound to.

Two arguments (losetup /dev/loop1 file.img) create a new association, with an optional offset (-o 12345). Encryption is not yet supported. losetup -f will show the first loop free loop device

lpd
lpd SPOOLDIR

Example:

        tcpsvd -E 0 515 softlimit -m 99999 lpd /var/spool

lpq
lpq

Options:

        -P      lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
        -d      Delete jobs
        -f      Force any waiting job to be printed
        -s      Short display

lpr
lpr

Options:

        -P      lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
        -m      Send mail on completion
        -h      Print banner page too
        -V      Verbose

ls
ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhkK] [filenames...]

List directory contents

Options:

        -1      List files in a single column
        -A      Do not list implied . and ..
        -a      Do not hide entries starting with .
        -C      List entries by columns
        -c      With -l: show ctime
        --color[={always,never,auto}]   Control coloring
        -d      List directory entries instead of contents
        -e      List both full date and full time
        -F      Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
        -i      List the i-node for each file
        -l      Use a long listing format
        -n      List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names
        -p      Append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries
        -L      List entries pointed to by symlinks
        -R      List subdirectories recursively
        -r      Sort the listing in reverse order
        -S      Sort the listing by file size
        -s      List the size of each file, in blocks
        -T NUM  Assume Tabstop every NUM columns
        -t      With -l: show modification time
        -u      With -l: show access time
        -v      Sort the listing by version
        -w NUM  Assume the terminal is NUM columns wide
        -x      List entries by lines instead of by columns
        -X      Sort the listing by extension
        -h      Print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G)
        -k      Print security context
        -K      Print security context in long format
        -Z      Print security context and permission

lsattr
lsattr [-Radlv] [files...]

List file attributes on an ext2 fs

Options:

        -R      Recursively list subdirectories
        -a      Do not hide entries starting with .
        -d      List directory entries instead of contents
        -l      Print long flag names
        -v      List the file's version/generation number

lsmod
lsmod

List the currently loaded kernel modules

lzmacat
lzmacat FILE

Uncompress to stdout

makedevs
makedevs [-d device_table] rootdir

Create a range of special files as specified in a device table. Device table entries take the form of: <type> <mode> <uid> <gid> <major> <minor> <start> <inc> <count> Where name is the file name, type can be one of:

        f       A regular file
        d       Directory
        c       Character special device file
        b       Block special device file
        p       Fifo (named pipe)
uid is the user id for the target file, gid is the group id for the
target file. The rest of the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to
to device special files. A '-' may be used for blank entries.

Example:

        For example:
        <name>    <type> <mode><uid><gid><major><minor><start><inc><count>
        /dev         d   755    0    0    -      -      -      -    -
        /dev/console c   666    0    0    5      1      -      -    -
        /dev/null    c   666    0    0    1      3      0      0    -
        /dev/zero    c   666    0    0    1      5      0      0    -
        /dev/hda     b   640    0    0    3      0      0      0    -
        /dev/hda     b   640    0    0    3      1      1      1    15
        
        Will Produce:
        /dev
        /dev/console
        /dev/null
        /dev/zero
        /dev/hda
        /dev/hda[0-15]

matchpathcon
matchpathcon [-n] [-N] [-f file_contexts_file] [-p prefix] [-V]

        -n      Do not display path
        -N      Do not use translations
        -f      Use alternate file_context file
        -p      Use prefix to speed translations
        -V      Verify file context on disk matches defaults

md5sum
md5sum [OPTION] [FILEs...]
   or: md5sum [OPTION-c [FILE]

Print or check MD5 checksums

Options:

        -c      Check MD5 sums against given list
        -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
        -w      Warn about improperly formatted MD5 checksum lines

Example:

        $ md5sum < busybox
        6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003
        $ md5sum busybox
        6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox
        $ md5sum -c -
        6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox
        busybox: OK
        ^D

mdev
mdev [-s]

        -s      Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot

Called with no options (via hotplug) it uses environment variables to determine which device to add/remove.

         The mdev config file contains lines that look like:
  hd[a-z][0-9]* 0:3 660

That's device name (with regex match), uid:gid, and permissions.

Optionally, that can be followed (on the same line) by a special character and a command line to run after creating/before deleting the corresponding device(s). The environment variable $MDEV indicates the active device node (which is useful if it's a regex match). For example:

  hdc root:cdrom 660  *ln -s $MDEV cdrom

The special characters are @ (run after creating), $ (run before deleting), and * (run both after creating and before deleting). The commands run in the /dev directory, and use system() which calls /bin/sh.

Config file parsing stops on the first matching line. If no config entry is matched, devices are created with default 0:0 660. (Make the last line match .* to override this.)

mesg
mesg [y|n]

Control write access to your terminal

        y       Allow write access to your terminal
        n       Disallow write access to your terminal

microcom
microcom [-d DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s SPEED] [-X] TTY

Copy bytes for stdin to TTY and from TTY to stdout

Options:

        -d      Wait up to DELAY ms for TTY output before sending every
                next byte to it
        -t      Exit if both stdin and TTY are silent for TIMEOUT ms
        -s      Set serial line to SPEED
        -X      Disable special meaning of NUL and Ctrl-X from stdin

mkdir
mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY...

Create DIRECTORY

Options:

        -m      Set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask
        -p      No error if existing, make parent directories as needed
        -Z      Set security context

Example:

        $ mkdir /tmp/foo
        $ mkdir /tmp/foo
        /tmp/foo: File exists
        $ mkdir /tmp/foo/bar/baz
        /tmp/foo/bar/baz: No such file or directory
        $ mkdir -p /tmp/foo/bar/baz

mke2fs
mke2fs [-c|-l filename] [-b block-size] [-f fragment-size] [-g blocks-per-group] [-i bytes-per-inode] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-N number-of-inodes] [-n] [-m reserved-blocks-percentage] [-o creator-os] [-O feature[,...]] [-q] [r fs-revision-level] [-E extended-options] [-v] [-F] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-directory] [-S] [-T filesystem-type] device [blocks-count]

        -b size         Block size in bytes
        -c              Check for bad blocks before creating
        -E opts         Set extended options
        -f size         Fragment size in bytes
        -F              Force (ignore sanity checks)
        -g num          Number of blocks in a block group
        -i ratio        The bytes/inode ratio
        -j              Create a journal (ext3)
        -J opts         Set journal options (size/device)
        -l file         Read bad blocks list from file
        -L lbl          Set the volume label
        -m percent      Percent of fs blocks to reserve for admin
        -M dir          Set last mounted directory
        -n              Do not actually create anything
        -N num          Number of inodes to create
        -o os           Set the 'creator os' field
        -O features     Dir_index/filetype/has_journal/journal_dev/sparse_super
        -q              Quiet
        -r rev          Set filesystem revision
        -S              Write superblock and group descriptors only
        -T fs-type      Set usage type (news/largefile/largefile4)
        -v              Verbose

mkfifo
mkfifo [OPTIONS] name

Create named pipe (identical to 'mknod name p')

Options:

        -m MODE Mode (default a=rw)
        -Z      Set security context

mkfs.minix
mkfs.minix [-c | -l filename] [-nXX] [-iXX] /dev/name [blocks]

Make a MINIX filesystem

Options:

        -c              Check device for bad blocks
        -n [14|30]      Maximum length of filenames
        -i INODES       Number of inodes for the filesystem
        -l FILENAME     Read bad blocks list from FILENAME
        -v              Make version 2 filesystem

mknod
mknod [OPTIONS] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR

Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)

Options:

        -m      Create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw)
TYPEs include:

        b:      Make a block device
        c or u: Make a character device
        p:      Make a named pipe (MAJOR and MINOR are ignored)
        -Z      Set security context

Example:

        $ mknod /dev/fd0 b 2 0
        $ mknod -m 644 /tmp/pipe p

mkswap
mkswap DEVICE

Prepare block device to be used as swap partition

mktemp
mktemp [-dt] [-p DIR] TEMPLATE

Create a temporary file with its name based on TEMPLATE. TEMPLATE is any name with six 'Xs' (i.e., /tmp/temp.XXXXXX).

Options:

        -d      Make a directory instead of a file/*   "
        -q      Fail silently if an error occurs" - we ignore it */ 
        -t      Generate a path rooted in temporary directory
        -p DIR  Use DIR as a temporary directory (implies -t)

For -t or -p, directory is chosen as follows: $TMPDIR if set, else -p DIR, else /tmp

Example:

        $ mktemp /tmp/temp.XXXXXX
        /tmp/temp.mWiLjM
        $ ls -la /tmp/temp.mWiLjM
        -rw-------    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 25 17:10 /tmp/temp.mWiLjM

modprobe
modprobe [-knqrsv] MODULE [symbol=value...]

Options:

        -k      Make module autoclean-able
        -n      Dry run
        -q      Quiet
        -r      Remove module (stacks) or do autoclean
        -s      Report via syslog instead of stderr
        -v      Verbose

modprobe can (un)load a stack of modules, passing each module options (when loading). modprobe uses a configuration file to determine what option(s) to pass each module it loads.

The configuration file is searched (in order) amongst:

    /etc/modprobe.conf (2.6 only)
    /etc/modules.conf
    /etc/conf.modules (deprecated)

They all have the same syntax (see below). If none is present, it is _not_ an error; each loaded module is then expected to load without options. Once a file is found, the others are tested for.

/etc/modules.conf entry format:

  alias <alias_name> <mod_name>
    Makes it possible to modprobe alias_name, when there is no such module.
    It makes sense if your mod_name is long, or you want a more representative
    name for that module (eg. 'scsi' in place of 'aha7xxx').
    This makes it also possible to use a different set of options (below) for
    the module and the alias.
    A module can be aliased more than once.

  options <mod_name|alias_name> <symbol=value...>
    When loading module mod_name (or the module aliased by alias_name), pass
    the "symbol=value" pairs as option to that module.

Sample /etc/modules.conf file:

  options tulip irq=3
  alias tulip tulip2
  options tulip2 irq=4 io=0x308

Other functionality offered by 'classic' modprobe is not available in this implementation.

If module options are present both in the config file, and on the command line, then the options from the command line will be passed to the module _after_ the options from the config file. That way, you can have defaults in the config file, and override them for a specific usage from the command line.

Example:

        (with the above /etc/modules.conf):
        
        $ modprobe tulip
           will load the module 'tulip' with default option 'irq=3'
        
        $ modprobe tulip irq=5
           will load the module 'tulip' with option 'irq=5', thus overriding the default
        
        $ modprobe tulip2
           will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308',
           which are the default for alias 'tulip2'
        
        $ modprobe tulip2 irq=8
           will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308 irq=8',
           which are the default for alias 'tulip2' overridden by the option 'irq=8'
        
           from the command line
        
        $ modprobe tulip2 irq=2 io=0x210
           will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308 irq=4 io=0x210',
           which are the default for alias 'tulip2' overridden by the options 'irq=2 io=0x210'
        
           from the command line

more
more [FILE...]

View FILE or standard input one screenful at a time

Example:

        $ dmesg | more

mount
mount [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o options,more-options]

Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc be mounted.

Options:

        -a              Mount all filesystems in fstab
        -f              Update /etc/mtab, but don't mount
        -n              Don't update /etc/mtab
        -r              Read-only mount
        -t fs-type      Filesystem type
        -w              Read-write mount (default)
B<-o> option:

        loop            Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)
        [a]sync         Writes are asynchronous / synchronous
        [no]atime       Disable / enable updates to inode access times
        [no]diratime    Disable / enable atime updates to directories
        [no]dev         Allow use of special device files / disallow them
        [no]exec        Allow use of executable files / disallow them
        [no]suid        Allow set-user-id-root programs / disallow them
        [r]shared       Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree
        [r]slave        Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree
        [r]private      Convert [recursively] to a private subtree
        [un]bindable    Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted
        bind            Bind a directory to an additional location
        move            Relocate an existing mount point
        remount         Remount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags
        ro/rw           Mount for read-only / read-write

There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem You'll have to see the written documentation for those filesystems

Returns 0 for success, number of failed mounts for -a, or errno for one mount.

Example:

        $ mount
        /dev/hda3 on / type minix (rw)
        proc on /proc type proc (rw)
        devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw)
        $ mount /dev/fd0 /mnt -t msdos -o ro
        $ mount /tmp/diskimage /opt -t ext2 -o loop
        $ mount cd_image.iso mydir

mountpoint
mountpoint [-q] <[-d] DIR | -x DEVICE>

mountpoint checks if the directory is a mountpoint

Options:

        -q      Quiet
        -d      Print major/minor device number of the filesystem
        -x      Print major/minor device number of the blockdevice

Example:

        $ mountpoint /proc
        /proc is not a mountpoint
        $ mountpoint /sys
        /sys is a mountpoint

mt
mt [-f device] opcode value

Control magnetic tape drive operation

Available Opcodes:

bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity setpart tell unload unlock weof wset

mv
mv [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST or: mv [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY

Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

Options:

        -f      Don't prompt before overwriting
        -i      Interactive, prompt before overwrite

Example:

        $ mv /tmp/foo /bin/bar

nameif
nameif [-s] [-c FILE] [{IFNAME MACADDR}]

Rename network interface while it in the down state

Options:

        -c FILE         Use configuration file (default is /etc/mactab)
        -s              Use syslog (LOCAL0 facility)
        IFNAME MACADDR  new_interface_name interface_mac_address

Example:

        $ nameif -s dmz0 00:A0:C9:8C:F6:3F
         or
        $ nameif -c /etc/my_mactab_file

nc
nc [-options] hostname port - connect nc [-options] -l -p port [hostname] [port] - listen

Options:

        -e prog [args]  Program to exec after connect (must be last)
        -l              Listen mode, for inbound connects
        -n              Don't do DNS resolution
        -s addr         Local address
        -p port         Local port
        -u              UDP mode
        -v              Verbose (cumulative: -vv)
        -w secs         Timeout for connects and final net reads
        -i sec          Delay interval for lines sent" /* ", ports scanned" */ 
        -o file         Hex dump of traffic
        -z              Zero-I/O mode (scanning)/*   "
        -r              Randomize local and remote ports" */

         To use netcat as a terminal emulator on a serial port:

$ stty 115200 -F /dev/ttyS0 $ stty raw -echo -ctlecho && nc -f /dev/ttyS0

Example:

        $ nc foobar.somedomain.com 25
        220 foobar ESMTP Exim 3.12 #1 Sat, 15 Apr 2000 00:03:02 -0600
        help
        214-Commands supported:
        214-    HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA AUTH
        214     NOOP QUIT RSET HELP
        quit
        221 foobar closing connection

netstat
netstat [-laentuwxrW]

Display networking information

Options:

        -l      Display listening server sockets
        -a      Display all sockets (default: connected)
        -e      Display other/more information
        -n      Don't resolve names
        -t      Tcp sockets
        -u      Udp sockets
        -w      Raw sockets
        -x      Unix sockets
        -r      Display routing table
        -W      Display with no column truncation

nice
nice [-n ADJUST] [COMMAND [ARG]...]

Run a program with modified scheduling priority

Options:

        -n ADJUST       Adjust the scheduling priority by ADJUST

nmeter
nmeter format_string

Monitor system in real time

Format specifiers: %Nc or %[cN]    Monitor CPU. N - bar size, default 10

                (displays: S:system U:user N:niced D:iowait I:irq i:softirq)
%[niface]       Monitor network interface 'iface'
%m              Monitor allocated memory
%[mf]           Monitor free memory
%[mt]           Monitor total memory
%s              Monitor allocated swap
%f              Monitor number of used file descriptors
%Ni             Monitor total/specific IRQ rate
%x              Monitor context switch rate
%p              Monitor forks
%[pn]           Monitor # of processes
%b              Monitor block io
%Nt             Show time (with N decimal points)
%Nd             Milliseconds between updates (default=1000)
%r              Print <cr> instead of <lf> at EOL

Example:

        nmeter '%250d%t %20c int %i bio %b mem %m forks%p'

nohup
nohup COMMAND [ARGS]

Run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty

Example:

        $ nohup make &

nslookup
nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]

Query the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST optionally using a specified DNS server

Example:

        $ nslookup localhost
        Server:     default
        Address:    default
        
        Name:       debian
        Address:    127.0.0.1

od
od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [-t TYPE] [FILE]

Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE to standard output. With no FILE or when FILE is -, read standard input.

openvt
openvt VTNUM COMMAND [ARGS...]

Start a command on a new virtual terminal

Example:

        openvt 2 /bin/ash

passwd
passwd [OPTION] [name]

Change user's password. If no name is specified, changes the password for the current user.

Options:

        -a      Algorithm to use for password (choices: des, md5)" /* ", sha1)" */ 
        -d      Delete password for the account
        -l      Lock (disable) account
        -u      Unlock (re-enable) account

patch
patch [-p NUM] [-i DIFF]

        -p NUM  Strip NUM leading components from file names
        -i DIFF Read DIFF instead of stdin

Example:

        $ patch -p1 < example.diff
        $ patch -p0 -i example.diff

pgrep
pgrep [-flnovx] pattern

Display process(es) selected by regex pattern

Options:

        -l      Show command name too
        -f      Match against entire command line
        -n      Show the newest process only
        -o      Show the oldest process only
        -v      Negate the matching
        -x      Match whole name (not substring)

pidof
pidof [NAME...]

List PIDs of all processes with names that match NAMEs       USAGE_PIDOF

        -s      Show only one PID
        -o PID  Omit given pid
                Use %PPID to omit pid of pidof's parent

Example:

        $ pidof init
        1
        $ pidof /bin/sh
        20351 5973 5950
        $ pidof /bin/sh -o %PPID
        20351 5950

ping
ping [OPTION]... host

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

Options:

        -4, -6          Force IPv4 or IPv6 hostname resolution
        -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
        -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56)
        -I iface/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
        -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                        and when finished

Example:

        $ ping localhost
        PING slag (127.0.0.1): 56 data bytes
        64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=20.1 ms
        
        --- debian ping statistics ---
        1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
        round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

ping6
ping6 [OPTION]... host

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

Options:

        -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
        -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56)
        -I iface/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
        -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                        and when finished

Example:

        $ ping6 ip6-localhost
        PING ip6-localhost (::1): 56 data bytes
        64 bytes from ::1: icmp6_seq=0 ttl=64 time=20.1 ms
        
        --- ip6-localhost ping statistics ---
        1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
        round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

pivot_root
pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the new root file system

pkill
pkill [-l] | [-fnovx] [-signal] pattern

Send a signal to process(es) selected by regex pattern

Options:

        -l      List all signals
        -f      Match against entire command line
        -n      Signal the newest process only
        -o      Signal the oldest process only
        -v      Negate the matching
        -x      Match whole name (not substring)

poweroff
poweroff [-d delay] [-n] [-f]

Halt and shut off power

Options:

        -d      Delay interval for halting
        -n      No call to sync()
        -f      Force power off (don't go through init)

printenv
printenv [VARIABLES...]

Print all or part of environment. If no environment VARIABLE specified, print them all.

printf
printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT...]

Format and print ARGUMENT(s) according to FORMAT, where FORMAT controls the output exactly as in C printf

Example:

        $ printf "Val=%d\n" 5
        Val=5

ps
ps

Report process status

        USAGE_PS         
        -Z      Show SE Linux context
        w       Wide output

Example:

        $ ps
          PID  Uid      Gid State Command
            1 root     root     S init
            2 root     root     S [kflushd]
            3 root     root     S [kupdate]
            4 root     root     S [kpiod]
            5 root     root     S [kswapd]
          742 andersen andersen S [bash]
          743 andersen andersen S -bash
          745 root     root     S [getty]
         2990 andersen andersen R ps

pscan
pscan [-p MIN_PORT] [-P MAX_PORT] [-t TIMEOUT] [-T MIN_RTT] HOST

Scan a host, print all open ports

Options:

        -p      Scan from this port (default 1)
        -P      Scan up to this port (default 1024)
        -t      Timeout (default 5000 ms)
        -T      Minimum rtt (default 5 ms, increase for congested hosts)

pwd
pwd

Print the full filename of the current working directory

Example:

        $ pwd
        /root

raidautorun
raidautorun DEVICE

Tell the kernel to automatically search and start RAID arrays

Example:

        $ raidautorun /dev/md0

rdate
rdate [-sp] HOST

Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST

Options:

        -s      Set the system date and time (default)
        -p      Print the date and time

readahead
readahead [FILE]...

Preload FILE(s) in RAM cache so that subsequent reads for thosefiles do not block on disk I/O

readlink
readlink [-f] FILE

Display the value of a symlink

Options:

        -f      Canonicalize by following all symlinks

readprofile
readprofile [OPTIONS]...

Options:

        -m mapfile      (Default: /boot/System.map)
        -p profile      (Default: /proc/profile)
        -M mult         Set the profiling multiplier to mult
        -i              Print only info about the sampling step
        -v              Verbose
        -a              Print all symbols, even if count is 0
        -b              Print individual histogram-bin counts
        -s              Print individual counters within functions
        -r              Reset all the counters (root only)
        -n              Disable byte order auto-detection

realpath
realpath pathname...

Return the absolute pathnames of given argument

reboot
reboot [-d delay] [-n] [-f]

Reboot the system

Options:

        -d      Delay interval for rebooting
        -n      No call to sync()
        -f      Force reboot (don't go through init)

renice
renice {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[-p | -g | -u] ID...]

Change priority of running processes

Options:

        -n      Adjust current nice value (smaller is faster)
        -p      Process id(s) (default)
        -g      Process group id(s)
        -u      Process user name(s) and/or id(s)

reset
reset

Reset the screen

resize
resize

Resize the screen

restorecon
restorecon [-iFnrRv] [-e excludedir]... [-o filename] [-f filename | pathname]

Reset security contexts of files in pathname

        -i              Ignore files that do not exist
        -f file         File with list of files to process. Use - for stdin
        -e directory    Directory to exclude
        -R,-r           Recurse directories
        -n              Don't change any file labels
        -o file         Save list of files with incorrect context
        -v              Verbose
        -vv             Show changed labels
        -F              Force reset of context to match file_context
                        for customizable files, or the user section,
                        if it has changed

rm
rm [OPTION]... FILE...

Remove (unlink) the FILE(s). Use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.

Options:

        -i      Always prompt before removing
        -f      Never prompt
        -r,-R   Remove directories recursively

Example:

        $ rm -rf /tmp/foo

rmdir
rmdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...

Remove the DIRECTORY, if it is empty

Example:

        # rmdir /tmp/foo

rmmod
rmmod [OPTION]... [MODULE]...

Unload the specified kernel modules from the kernel

Options:

        -a      Remove all unused modules (recursively)

Example:

        $ rmmod tulip

route
route [{add|del|delete}]

Edit the kernel's routing tables

Options:

        -n      Dont resolve names
        -e      Display other/more information
        -A inet{6}      Select address family

rpm
rpm -i -q[ildc]p package.rpm

Manipulate RPM packages

Options:

        -i      Install package
        -q      Query package
        -p      Query uninstalled package
        -i      Show information
        -l      List contents
        -d      List documents
        -c      List config files

rpm2cpio
rpm2cpio package.rpm

Output a cpio archive of the rpm file

rtcwake
rtcwake [-a | -l | -u] [-d DEV] [-m MODE] [-s SECS | -t TIME]

Enter a system sleep state until specified wakeup time

        -a,--auto        Read clock mode from adjtime
        -l,--local       Clock is set to local time
        -u,--utc         Clock is set to UTC time
        -d,--device=DEV  Specify the RTC device
        -m,--mode=MODE   Set the sleep state (default: standby)
        -s,--seconds=SEC Set the timeout in SEC seconds from now
        -t,--time=TIME   Set the timeout to TIME seconds from epoch

run-parts
run-parts [-t] [-l] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY

Run a bunch of scripts in a directory

Options:

        -t      Print what would be run, but don't actually run anything
        -a ARG  Pass ARG as argument for every program
        -u MASK Set the umask to MASK before running every program
        -l      Print names of all matching files even if they are not executable

Example:

        $ run-parts -a start /etc/init.d
        $ run-parts -a stop=now /etc/init.d
        
        Let's assume you have a script foo/dosomething:
        #!/bin/sh
        for i in $*; do eval $i; done; unset i
        case "$1" in
        start*) echo starting something;;
        stop*) set -x; shutdown -h $stop;;
        esac
        
        Running this yields:
        $run-parts -a stop=+4m foo/
        + shutdown -h +4m

runcon
runcon [-c] [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-t TYPE] [-l RANGE] COMMAND [args]         runcon CONTEXT COMMAND [args]

Run a program in a different security context

        CONTEXT         Complete security context

        -c,--compute    Compute process transition context before modifying
        -t,--type=TYPE  Type (for same role as parent)
        -u,--user=USER  User identity
        -r,--role=ROLE  Role
        -l,--range=RNG  Levelrange

runlevel
runlevel [utmp]

Example:

        $ runlevel /var/run/utmp
        N 2

runsv
runsv dir

Start and monitor a service and optionally an appendant log service

runsvdir
runsvdir [-P] dir

Start a runsv process for each subdirectory

rx
rx FILE

Receive a file using the xmodem protocol

Example:

        $ rx /tmp/foo

script
script [-afq] [-c COMMAND] [OUTFILE]

Options:

        -a      Append output
        -c      Run COMMAND, not shell
        -f      Flush output after each write
        -q      Quiet

sed
sed [-efinr] pattern [files...]

Options:

        -e script       Add the script to the commands to be executed
        -f scriptfile   Add scriptfile contents to the
                        commands to be executed
        -i              Edit files in-place
        -n              Suppress automatic printing of pattern space
        -r              Use extended regular expression syntax

If no -e or -f is given, the first non-option argument is taken as the sed script to interpret. All remaining arguments are names of input files; if no input files are specified, then the standard input is read. Source files will not be modified unless -i option is given.

Example:

        $ echo "foo" | sed -e 's/f[a-zA-Z]o/bar/g'
        bar

selinuxenabled
selinuxenabled #define selinuxenabled_full_usage
sendmail
sendmail [-w timeout] [-U user] [-P password] [-X] -t to [-t to]... [-n] [-s subject] [-c charset] server[:port] from [body] [attachment ...]

Send an email.

Options:

        -w timeout      Set timeout on network operations
        -U username     Authenticate with specified username/password
        -P password
        -t address      Recipient(s). May be repeated
        -X              Use openssl connection helper for secured servers
        -n              Request delivery notification to sender
        -s subject      Subject
        -c charset      Assumed charset for body and subject [utf-8]

seq
seq [first [increment]] last

Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in steps of INCREMENT. FIRST, INCREMENT default to 1

Arguments:

        LAST
        FIRST LAST
        FIRST INCREMENT LAST

sestatus
sestatus [-vb]

        -v      Verbose
        -b      Display current state of booleans

setarch
setarch personality program [args...]

Personality may be:

        linux32         Set 32bit uname emulation
        linux64         Set 64bit uname emulation

setconsole
setconsole [-r|--reset] [DEVICE]

Redirect system console output to DEVICE (default: /dev/tty)

Options:

        -r      Reset output to /dev/console

setenforce
setenforce [Enforcing | Permissive | 1 | 0]
setfiles
setfiles [-dnpqsvW] [-e dir]... [-o file] [-r alt_root_path] [-c policyfile] spec_file pathname

Reset file contexts under pathname according to spec_file

        -c file Check the validity of the contexts against the specified binary policy
        -d      Show which specification matched each file
        -l      Log changes in file labels to syslog
        -n      Don't change any file labels
        -q      Suppress warnings
        -r dir  Use an altenate root path
        -e dir  Exclude directory
        -F      Force reset of context to match file_context for customizable files
        -o file Save list of files with incorrect context
        -s      Take a list of files from standard input (instead of command line)
        -v      Show changes in file labels, if type or role are changing
        -vv     Show changes in file labels, if type, role, or user are changing
        -W      Display warnings about entries that had no matching files

setkeycodes
setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE...

Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map, allowing unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.

SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is given in decimal

Example:

        $ setkeycodes e030 127

setlogcons
setlogcons N

Redirect the kernel output to console N (0 for current)

setsebool
setsebool boolean value

Change boolean setting

setsid
setsid PROG [ARG...]

Run PROG in a new session. PROG will have no controlling terminal and will not be affected by keyboard signals (Ctrl-C etc). See setsid(2) for details.

setuidgid
setuidgid account prog args

Set uid and gid to account's uid and gid, removing all supplementary groups, then run prog

sha1sum
sha1sum [OPTION] [FILEs...]
   or: sha1sum [OPTION-c [FILE]

Print or check SHA1 checksums.

Options:

        -c      Check SHA1 sums against given list
        -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
        -w      Warn about improperly formatted SHA1 checksum lines

slattach
slattach [-cehmLF] [-s speed] [-p protocol] DEVICEs

Attach network interface(s) to serial line(s)

Options:

        -p      Set protocol (slip, cslip, slip6, clisp6 or adaptive)
        -s      Set line speed
        -e      Exit after initializing device
        -h      Exit when the carrier is lost
        -c      Execute a command when the line is hung up
        -m      Do NOT initialize the line in raw 8 bits mode
        -L      Enable 3-wire operation
        -F      Disable RTS/CTS flow control

sleep
sleep [N]...

                 Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can
have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays

Example:

        $ sleep 2
        [2 second delay results]
        $ sleep 1d 3h 22m 8s
        [98528 second delay results]

softlimit
softlimit [-a allbytes] [-c corebytes] [-d databytes] [-f filebytes] [-l lockbytes] [-m membytes] [-o openfiles] [-p processes] [-r residentbytes] [-s stackbytes] [-t cpusecs] prog args

Set soft resource limits, then run prog

Options:

        -m n    Same as -d n -s n -l n -a n
        -d n    Limit the data segment per process to n bytes
        -s n    Limit the stack segment per process to n bytes
        -l n    Limit the locked physical pages per process to n bytes
        -a n    Limit the total of all segments per process to n bytes
        -o n    Limit the number of open file descriptors per process to n
        -p n    Limit the number of processes per uid to n
Options controlling file sizes:

        -f n    Limit output file sizes to n bytes
        -c n    Limit core file sizes to n bytes
Efficiency opts:

        -r n    Limit the resident set size to n bytes. This limit is not
                enforced unless physical memory is full
        -t n    Limit the CPU time to n seconds. This limit is not enforced
                except that the process receives a SIGXCPU signal after n seconds

Some options may have no effect on some operating systems n may be =, indicating that soft limit should be set equal to hard limit

sort
sort [-nrugMcszbdfimSTokt] [-o FILE] [-k start[.offset][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t CHAR] [FILE]...

Sort lines of text

Options:

        -b      Ignore leading blanks
        -c      Check whether input is sorted
        -d      Dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only)
        -f      Ignore case
        -g      General numerical sort
        -i      Ignore unprintable characters
        -k      Sort key
        -M      Sort month
        -n      Sort numbers
        -o      Output to file
        -k      Sort by key
        -t CHAR Key separator
        -r      Reverse sort order
        -s      Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)
        -u      Suppress duplicate lines
        -z      Lines are terminated by NUL, not newline
        -mST    Ignored for GNU compatibility

Example:

        $ echo -e "e\nf\nb\nd\nc\na" | sort
        a
        b
        c
        d
        e
        f
        $ echo -e "c 3\nb 2\nd 2" | $SORT -k 2,2n -k 1,1r
        d 2
        b 2
        c 3

split
split [OPTION] [INPUT [PREFIX]]

Options:

        -b n[k|m]       Split by bytes
        -l n            Split by lines
        -a n            Use n letters as suffix

Example:

        $ split TODO foo
        $ cat TODO | split -a 2 -l 2 TODO_

start-stop-daemon
start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [--start|--stop] ... [-- arguments...]

Start and stop services

Options:

        -S,--start              Start
        -K,--stop               Stop
        -a,--startas pathname   Start process specified by pathname
        -b,--background         Put process into background
        -u,--user username|uid  Stop this user's processes
        -x,--exec executable    Program to either start or check
        -n,--name process-name  Stop processes with this name
        -p,--pidfile pid-file   Save or load pid using a pid-file
        -m,--make-pidfile       Create the -p file and enter pid in it
        -q,--quiet              Quiet
        -o,--oknodo             Exit status 0 if nothing done
        -v,--verbose            Verbose
        -N,--nicelevel N        Add N to process's nice level
        -s,--signal signal      Signal to send (default TERM)
        -c,--chuid user[:[grp]] Change to specified user/group
        -s signal       Signal to send (default TERM)
        -c user[:[grp]] Change to specified user/group  )

stat
stat [OPTION] FILE...

Display file (default) or filesystem status

Options:

        -c fmt  Use the specified format
        -f      Display filesystem status
        -L      Dereference links
        -t      Display info in terse form
        -Z      Print security context

Valid format sequences for files:

 %a     Access rights in octal
 %A     Access rights in human readable form
 %b     Number of blocks allocated (see %B)
 %B     The size in bytes of each block reported by %b
 %d     Device number in decimal
 %D     Device number in hex
 %f     Raw mode in hex
 %F     File type
 %g     Group ID of owner
 %G     Group name of owner
 %h     Number of hard links
 %i     Inode number
 %n     File name
 %N     Quoted file name with dereference if symlink
 %o     I/O block size
 %s     Total size, in bytes
 %t     Major device type in hex
 %T     Minor device type in hex
 %u     User ID of owner
 %U     User name of owner
 %x     Time of last access
 %X     Time of last access as seconds since Epoch
 %y     Time of last modification
 %Y     Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch
 %z     Time of last change
 %Z     Time of last change as seconds since Epoch

Valid format sequences for file systems:

 %a     Free blocks available to non-superuser
 %b     Total data blocks in file system
 %c     Total file nodes in file system
 %d     Free file nodes in file system
 %f     Free blocks in file system
 %C     Security context in SELinux
 %i     File System ID in hex
 %l     Maximum length of filenames
 %n     File name
 %s     Block size (for faster transfer)
 %S     Fundamental block size (for block counts)
 %t     Type in hex
 %T     Type in human readable form

strings
strings [-afo] [-n length] [file...]

Display printable strings in a binary file

Options:

        -a      Scan whole file (default)
        -f      Precede strings with filenames
        -n N    At least N characters form a string (default 4)
        -o      Precede strings with decimal offsets

stty
stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...

Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and deviations from stty sane

Options:

        -F DEVICE       Open device instead of stdin
        -a              Print all current settings in human-readable form
        -g              Print in stty-readable form
        [SETTING]       See manpage

su
su [OPTION]... [-] [username]

Change user id or become root

Options:

        -p, -m  Preserve environment
        -c      Command to pass to 'sh -c'
        -s      Shell to use instead of default shell

sulogin
sulogin [OPTION]... [tty-device]

Single user login

Options:

        -t      Timeout

sum
sum [rs] [files...]

Checksum and count the blocks in a file

Options:

        -r      Use BSD sum algorithm (1K blocks)
        -s      Use System V sum algorithm (512byte blocks)

sv
sv [-v] [-w sec] command service...

Control services monitored by runsv supervisor. Commands (only first character is enough):

status: query service status up: if service isn't running, start it. If service stops, restart it once: like 'up', but if service stops, don't restart it down: send TERM and CONT signals. If ./run exits, start ./finish

    if it exists. After it stops, do not restart service
exit: send TERM and CONT signals to service and log service. If they exit,

    runsv exits too
pause, cont, hup, alarm, interrupt, quit, 1, 2, term, kill: send
STOP, CONT, HUP, ALRM, INT, QUIT, USR1, USR2, TERM, KILL signal to service

svlogd
svlogd [-ttv] [-r c] [-R abc] [-l len] [-b buflen] dir...

Continuously read log data from standard input, optionally filter log messages, and write the data to one or more automatically rotated logs

swapoff
swapoff [-a] [DEVICE]

Stop swapping on DEVICE

Options:

        -a      Stop swapping on all swap devices

swapon
swapon [-a] [DEVICE]

Start swapping on DEVICE

Options:

        -a      Start swapping on all swap devices

switch_root
switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGUMENTS_TO_INIT]

Use from PID 1 under initramfs to free initramfs, chroot to NEW_ROOT, and exec NEW_INIT

Options:

        -c      Redirect console to device on new root

sync
sync

Write all buffered filesystem blocks to disk

sysctl
sysctl [OPTIONS]... [VALUE]...

Configure kernel parameters at runtime

Options:

        -n      Disable printing of key names
        -e      Don't warn about unknown keys
        -w      Change sysctl setting
        -p FILE Load sysctl settings from FILE (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
        -a      Display all values
        -A      Display all values in table form

Example:

        sysctl [-n] [-e] variable...
        sysctl [-n] [-e] -w variable=value...
        sysctl [-n] [-e] -a
        sysctl [-n] [-e] -p file        (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
        sysctl [-n] [-e] -A

syslogd
syslogd [OPTION]...

System logging utility. Note that this version of syslogd ignores /etc/syslog.conf.

Options:

        -n              Run in foreground
        -O FILE         Log to given file (default=/var/log/messages)
        -l n            Set local log level
        -S              Smaller logging output
        -s SIZE         Max size (KB) before rotate (default=200KB, 0=off)
        -b NUM          Number of rotated logs to keep (default=1, max=99, 0=purge)
        -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)
        -L              Log locally and via network (default is network only if -R)
        -D              Drop duplicates
        -C[size(KiB)]   Log to shared mem buffer (read it using logread)        /* NB: -Csize shouldn't have space (because size is optional) */

Example:

        $ syslogd -R masterlog:514
        $ syslogd -R 192.168.1.1:601

tac
tac [FILE]...

Concatenate FILE(s) and print them in reverse

tail
tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Options:

        -c N[kbm]       Output the last N bytes
        -n N[kbm]       Print last N lines instead of last 10
        -f              Output data as the file grows
        -q              Never output headers giving file names
        -s SEC          Wait SEC seconds between reads with -f
        -v              Always output headers giving file names

If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a '+', output begins with the Nth item from the start of each file, otherwise, print the last N items in the file. N bytes may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (1024^2).

Example:

        $ tail -n 1 /etc/resolv.conf
        nameserver 10.0.0.1

tar
tar -[czjaZxtvO] [-X FILE] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE(s)]...

Create, extract, or list files from a tar file

Options:

        c       Create
        x       Extract
        t       List
Archive format selection:

        z       Filter the archive through gzip
        j       Filter the archive through bzip2
        a       Filter the archive through lzma
        Z       Filter the archive through compress
File selection:

        f       Name of TARFILE or "-" for stdin
        O       Extract to stdout
        exclude File to exclude
        X       File with names to exclude
        C       Change to directory DIR before operation
        v       Verbose

Example:

        $ zcat /tmp/tarball.tar.gz | tar -xf -
        $ tar -cf /tmp/tarball.tar /usr/local

taskset
taskset [-p] [mask] [pid | command [arg]...]

Set or get CPU affinity

Options:

        -p      Operate on an existing PID

Example:

        $ taskset 0x7 ./dgemm_test&
        $ taskset -p 0x1 $!
        pid 4790's current affinity mask: 7
        pid 4790's new affinity mask: 1
        $ taskset 0x7 /bin/sh -c './taskset -p 0x1 $$'
        pid 6671's current affinity mask: 1
        pid 6671's new affinity mask: 1
        $ taskset -p 1
        pid 1's current affinity mask: 3

tcpsvd
tcpsvd [-hEv] [-c n] [-C n:msg] [-b n] [-u user] [-l name] ip port prog...

Create TCP socket, bind it to ip:port and listen for incoming connection. Run PROG for each connection.

ip           IP to listen on. '0' = all
port            Port to listen on
prog [arg]      Program to run
-l name         Local hostname (else looks up local hostname in DNS)
-u user[:group] Change to user/group after bind
-c n            Handle up to n connections simultaneously
-b n            Allow a backlog of approximately n TCP SYNs
-C n[:msg]      Allow only up to n connections from the same IP

                New connections from this IP address are closed
                immediately. 'msg' is written to the peer before close
B<-h>           Look up peer's hostname
B<-E>           Do not set up environment variables
B<-v>           Verbose

tee
tee [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output

Options:

        -a      Append to the given FILEs, do not overwrite
        -i      Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)

Example:

        $ echo "Hello" | tee /tmp/foo
        $ cat /tmp/foo
        Hello

telnet
telnet HOST [PORT]

Connect to telnet server

telnetd
telnetd [OPTION]

Handle incoming telnet connections

Options:

        -l LOGIN        Exec LOGIN on connect
        -f issue_file   Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue
        -K              Close connection as soon as login exits
                        (normally wait until all programs close slave pty)
        -p PORT         Port to listen on
        -b ADDR         Address to bind to
        -F              Run in foreground
        -i              Run as inetd subservice

test
test EXPRESSION
  or   [ EXPRESSION ]

Check file types and compares values returning an exit code determined by the value of EXPRESSION

Example:

        $ test 1 -eq 2
        $ echo $?
        1
        $ test 1 -eq 1
        $ echo $?
        0
        $ [ -d /etc ]
        $ echo $?
        0
        $ [ -d /junk ]
        $ echo $?
        1

tftp
tftp [OPTION]... HOST [PORT]

Transfer a file from/to tftp server

Options:

        -l FILE Local FILE
        -r FILE Remote FILE
        -g      Get file
        -p      Put file
        -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets

tftpd
tftpd [-cr] [-u USER] [DIR]

Transfer a file on tftp client's request.

Options:

        -r      Prohibit upload
        -c      Allow file creation via upload
        -u      Access files as USER

time
time [OPTION]... COMMAND [ARGS...]

Run the program COMMAND with arguments ARGS. When COMMAND finishes, COMMAND's resource usage information is displayed.

Options:

        -v      Verbose

top
top [-b] [-n COUNT] [-d SECONDS]

Provide a view of process activity in real time. Read the status of all processes from /proc each SECONDS and show the status for however many processes will fit on the screen.

touch
touch [-c] FILE [FILE...]

Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]

Options:

        -c      Do not create any files

Example:

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo
        /bin/ls: /tmp/foo: No such file or directory
        $ touch /tmp/foo
        $ ls -l /tmp/foo
        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 15 01:11 /tmp/foo

tr
tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]

Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input, writing to standard output

Options:

        -c      Take complement of STRING1
        -d      Delete input characters coded STRING1
        -s      Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character

Example:

        $ echo "gdkkn vnqkc" | tr [a-y] [b-z]
        hello world

traceroute
traceroute [-FIldnrv] [-f 1st_ttl] [-m max_ttl] [-p port#] [-q nqueries]         [-s src_addr] [-t tos] [-w wait] [-g gateway] [-i iface]
        [-z pausemsecs] HOST [data size]

Trace the route to HOST

Options:

        -F      Set the don't fragment bit
        -I      Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams
        -l      Display the ttl value of the returned packet
        -d      Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
        -n      Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically
        -r      Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host
        -v      Verbose
        -m max_ttl      Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
        -p port#        Base UDP port number used in probes
                        (default is 33434)
        -q nqueries     Number of probes per 'ttl' (default 3)
        -s src_addr     IP address to use as the source address
        -t tos          Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
        -w wait         Time in seconds to wait for a response
                        (default 3 sec)
        -g              Loose source route gateway (8 max)

true
true

Return an exit code of TRUE (0)

Example:

        $ true
        $ echo $?
        0

tty
tty

Print file name of standard input's terminal

Options:

        -s      Print nothing, only return exit status

Example:

        $ tty
        /dev/tty2

ttysize
ttysize [w] [h]

Print dimension(s) of standard input's terminal, on error return 80x25

tune2fs
tune2fs [-c max-mounts-count] [-e errors-behavior] [-g group] [-i interval[d|m|w]] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-l] [-s sparse-flag] [-m reserved-blocks-percent] [-o [^]mount-options[,...]] [-r reserved-blocks-count] [-u user] [-C mount-count] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-dir] [-O [^]feature[,...]] [-T last-check-time] [-U UUID] device

Adjust filesystem options on ext[23] filesystems

udhcpc
udhcpc [-Cfbnqtv] [-c CID] [-V VCLS] [-H HOSTNAME] [-i INTERFACE]         [-p pidfile] [-r IP] [-s script] [-O dhcp-option]... [-P N]

                -V,--vendorclass=CLASSID        Vendor class identifier
        -i,--interface=INTERFACE        Interface to use (default eth0)
        -H,-h,--hostname=HOSTNAME       Client hostname
        -c,--clientid=CLIENTID  Client identifier
        -C,--clientid-none      Suppress default client identifier
        -p,--pidfile=file       Create pidfile
        -r,--request=IP         IP address to request
        -s,--script=file        Run file at dhcp events (default /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script)
        -t,--retries=N          Send up to N request packets
        -T,--timeout=N          Try to get a lease for N seconds (default 3)
        -A,--tryagain=N         Wait N seconds (default 20) after failure
        -f,--foreground Run in foreground
        -b,--background Background if lease is not immediately obtained
        -S,--syslog     Log to syslog too
        -n,--now        Exit with failure if lease is not immediately obtained
        -q,--quit       Quit after obtaining lease
        -R,--release    Release IP on quit
        -O,--request-option=OPT Request DHCP option OPT from server
        -P,--client-port N  Use port N instead of default 68
        -a,--arping     Use arping to validate offered address
        -a              Use arping to validate offered address  )

udhcpd
udhcpd [-fS] [-P N] [configfile]

DHCP server

        -f      Run in foreground
        -S      Log to syslog too
        -P N    Use port N instead of default 67

udpsvd
udpsvd [-hEv] [-c n] [-u user] [-l name] ip port prog

Create UDP socket, bind it to ip:port and wait for incoming packets. Run PROG for each packet, redirecting all further packets with same peer ip:port to it

ip           IP to listen on. '0' = all
port            Port to listen on
prog [arg]      Program to run
-l name         Local hostname (else looks up local hostname in DNS)
-u user[:group] Change to user/group after bind
-c n            Handle up to n connections simultaneously
-h              Look up peer's hostname
-E              Do not set up environment variables
-v              Verbose

umount
umount [flags] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY

Unmount file systems

Options:

        -a      Unmount all file systems in /etc/mtab
        -n      Don't erase /etc/mtab entries
        -r      Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
        -l      Lazy umount (detach filesystem)
        -f      Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
        -d      Free loop device if it has been used

Example:

        $ umount /dev/hdc1

uname
uname [-amnrspv]

Print system information.

Options:

        -a      Print all
        -m      The machine (hardware) type
        -n      Hostname
        -r      OS release
        -s      OS name (default)
        -p      Processor type
        -v      OS version

Example:

        $ uname -a
        Linux debian 2.4.23 #2 Tue Dec 23 17:09:10 MST 2003 i686 GNU/Linux

uncompress
uncompress [-c] [-f] [name...]

Uncompress .Z file[s]

Options:

        -c      Extract to stdout
        -f      Overwrite an existing file

unexpand
unexpand [-f][-a][-t NUM] [FILE|-]

Convert spaces to tabs, writing to standard output.

Options:

        -a,--all        Convert all blanks
        -f,--first-only Convert only leading blanks
        -t,--tabs=N     Tabstops every N chars

uniq
uniq [-fscdu]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

Discard all but one of successive identical lines from INPUT (or standard input), writing to OUTPUT (or standard output)

Options:

        -c      Prefix lines by the number of occurrences
        -d      Only print duplicate lines
        -u      Only print unique lines
        -f N    Skip the first N fields
        -s N    Skip the first N chars (after any skipped fields)

Example:

        $ echo -e "a\na\nb\nc\nc\na" | sort | uniq
        a
        b
        c

unix2dos
unix2dos [option] [FILE]

Convert FILE from unix to dos format. When no file is given, use stdin/stdout.

Options:

        -u      dos2unix
        -d      unix2dos

unlzma
unlzma [OPTION]... [FILE]

Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-' or omitted)

Options:

        -c      Write to standard output
        -f      Force

unzip
unzip [-opts[modifiers]] file[.zip] [list] [-x xlist] [-d exdir]

Extract files from ZIP archives

Options:

        -l      List archive contents (with -q for short form)
        -n      Never overwrite existing files (default)
        -o      Overwrite files without prompting
        -p      Send output to stdout
        -q      Quiet
        -x      Exclude these files
        -d      Extract files into this directory

uptime
uptime

Display the time since the last boot

Example:

        $ uptime
          1:55pm  up  2:30, load average: 0.09, 0.04, 0.00

usleep
usleep N

Pause for N microseconds

Example:

        $ usleep 1000000
        [pauses for 1 second]

uudecode
uudecode [-o outfile] [infile]

Uudecode a file Finds outfile name in uuencoded source unless -o is given

Example:

        $ uudecode -o busybox busybox.uu
        $ ls -l busybox
        -rwxr-xr-x   1 ams      ams        245264 Jun  7 21:35 busybox

uuencode
uuencode [-m] [infile] stored_filename

Uuencode a file to stdout

Options:

        -m      Use base64 encoding per RFC1521

Example:

        $ uuencode busybox busybox
        begin 755 busybox
        <encoded file snipped>
        $ uudecode busybox busybox > busybox.uu
        $

vconfig
vconfig COMMAND [OPTIONS]...

Create and remove virtual ethernet devices

Options:

        add             [interface-name] [vlan_id]
        rem             [vlan-name]
        set_flag        [interface-name] [flag-num] [0 | 1]
        set_egress_map  [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
        set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
        set_name_type   [name-type]

vi
vi [OPTION] [FILE]...

Edit FILE

Options:

        -c      Initial command to run ($EXINIT also available)
        -R      Read-only - do not write to the file
        -H      Short help regarding available features

vlock
vlock [OPTIONS]

Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock.

Options:

        -a      Lock all VTs

watch
watch [-n seconds] [-t] COMMAND...

Execute a program periodically

Options:

        -n      Loop period in seconds (default 2)
        -t      Don't print header

Example:

        $ watch date
        Mon Dec 17 10:31:40 GMT 2000
        Mon Dec 17 10:31:42 GMT 2000
        Mon Dec 17 10:31:44 GMT 2000

watchdog
watchdog [-t N[ms]] [-F] DEV

Periodically write to watchdog device DEV

Options:

        -t N    Timer period (default 30)
        -F      Run in foreground

Use -t 500ms to specify period in milliseconds

wc
wc [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print line, word, and byte counts for each FILE, and a total line if more than one FILE is specified. With no FILE, read standard input.

Options:

        -c      Print the byte counts
        -l      Print the newline counts
        -L      Print the length of the longest line
        -w      Print the word counts

Example:

        $ wc /etc/passwd
             31      46    1365 /etc/passwd

wget
wget      [-c|--continue] [-s|--spider] [-q|--quiet] [-O|--output-document file]
        [--header 'header: value'] [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR]
        [-U|--user-agent agent] url

Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP

Options:

        -s      Spider mode - only check file existence
        -c      Continue retrieval of aborted transfer
        -q      Quiet
        -P      Set directory prefix to DIR
        -O      Save to filename ('-' for stdout)
        -U      Adjust 'User-Agent' field
        -Y      Use proxy ('on' or 'off')

which
which [COMMAND...]

Locate a COMMAND

Example:

        $ which login
        /bin/login

who
who [-a]

Show who is logged on

Options:

        -a      show all

whoami
whoami

Print the user name associated with the current effective user id

xargs
xargs [OPTIONS] [COMMAND] [ARGS...]

Execute COMMAND on every item given by standard input

Options:

        -p      Prompt the user about whether to run each command
        -r      Do not run command for empty read lines
        -x      Exit if the size is exceeded
        -0      Input filenames are terminated by a null character
        -t      Print the command line on stderr before executing it

Example:

        $ ls | xargs gzip
        $ find . -name '*.c' -print | xargs rm

yes
yes [OPTION]... [STRING]...

Repeatedly output a line with all specified STRING(s), or 'y'

zcat
zcat FILE

Uncompress to stdout

zcip
zcip [OPTIONS] ifname script

Manage a ZeroConf IPv4 link-local address

Options:

        -f              Run in foreground
        -q              Quit after address (no daemon)
        -r 169.254.x.x  Request this address first
        -v              Verbose

 

LIBC NSS

GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the behavior of the C library for the local environment, and to configure how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information. This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries. BusyBox tries to avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS. Some applets however, such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.

If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal functions to directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/shadow files without using NSS. This may allow you to run your system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration files and libraries.

When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly require that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in particular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*, and /lib/libresolv*).

Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as uClibc. In addition to making your system significantly smaller, uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files or libraries.  

MAINTAINER

Denis Vlasenko <[email protected]>  

AUTHORS

The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know it or not. If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should probably be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory. If you should be listed here, or the description of what you have done needs more detail, or is incorect, please send in an update.

Emanuele Aina <[email protected]>         run-parts

Erik Andersen <[email protected]>

    Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the
    core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files.
    Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that
    nobody is going to actually read.

Laurence Anderson <[email protected]>

    rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm

Jeff Angielski <[email protected]>

    ftpput, ftpget

Edward Betts <[email protected]>

    expr, hostid, logname, whoami

John Beppu <[email protected]>

    du, nslookup, sort

Brian Candler <[email protected]>

    tiny-ls(ls)

Randolph Chung <[email protected]>

    fbset, ping, hostname

Dave Cinege <[email protected]>

    more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
    various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance

Jordan Crouse <[email protected]>

        ipcalc

Magnus Damm <[email protected]>

    tftp client insmod powerpc support

Larry Doolittle <[email protected]>

    pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.

Glenn Engel <[email protected]>

    httpd

Gennady Feldman <[email protected]>

    Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,
    logread), various fixes.

Karl M. Hegbloom <[email protected]>

    cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.

Daniel Jacobowitz <[email protected]>

    mktemp.c

Matt Kraai <[email protected]>

    documentation, bugfixes, test suite

Stephan Linz <[email protected]>

        ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence

John Lombardo <[email protected]>

    tr

Glenn McGrath <[email protected]>

    Common unarchving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput,
    nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode.
    Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches.

Manuel Novoa III <[email protected]>

    cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes,
    mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,
    get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines

    also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in
    ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir,
    mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable,
    interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route

Vladimir Oleynik <[email protected]>

    cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);
    ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;
    locale, various fixes
    and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.

Bruce Perens <[email protected]>

    Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can
    still be found hiding here and there...

Tim Riker <[email protected]>

    bug fixes, member of fan club

Kent Robotti <[email protected]>

    reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.

Chip Rosenthal <[email protected]>, <[email protected]>

    wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications

Pavel Roskin <[email protected]>

    Lots of bugs fixes and patches.

Gyepi Sam <[email protected]>

    Remote logging feature for syslogd

Linus Torvalds <[email protected]>

    mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix

Mark Whitley <[email protected]>

    grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous),
    style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.

Charles P. Wright <[email protected]>

    gzip, mini-netcat(nc)

Enrique Zanardi <[email protected]>

    tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance

Tito Ragusa <[email protected]>

        devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt.

 

POD ERRORS

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Index

NAME
SYNTAX
DESCRIPTION
USAGE
COMMON OPTIONS
COMMANDS
COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
LIBC NSS
MAINTAINER
AUTHORS
POD ERRORS

This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 03:41:09 GMT, September 24, 2010