Content-type: text/html Man page of threads

threads

Section: Standards, Environments, and Macros (5)
Updated: 11 Aug 2006
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NAME

threads, pthreads - POSIX pthreads and Solaris threads concepts  

SYNOPSIS

 

POSIX

cc -mt [ flag... ] file... [ -lrt library... ]

#include <pthread.h> 

 

Solaris

cc -mt [ flag... ] file... [ library... ]

#include <sched.h>

#include <thread.h>

 

DESCRIPTION

POSIX and Solaris threads each have their own implementation within libc(3LIB). Both implementations are interoperable, their functionality similar, and can be used within the same application. Only POSIX threads are guaranteed to be fully portable to other POSIX-compliant environments. POSIX and Solaris threads require different source, include files and linking libraries. See SYNOPSIS.  

Similarities

Most of the POSIX and Solaris threading functions have counterparts with each other. POSIX function names, with the exception of the semaphore names, have a "pthread" prefix. Function names for similar POSIX and Solaris functions have similar endings. Typically, similar POSIX and Solaris functions have the same number and use of arguments.  

Differences

POSIX pthreads and Solaris threads differ in the following ways:

o POSIX threads are more portable.
o POSIX threads establish characteristics for each thread according to configurable attribute objects.
o POSIX pthreads implement thread cancellation.
o POSIX pthreads enforce scheduling algorithms.
o POSIX pthreads allow for clean-up handlers for fork(2) calls.
o Solaris threads can be suspended and continued.
o Solaris threads implement daemon threads, for whose demise the process does not wait.
 

FUNCTION COMPARISON

The following table compares the POSIX pthreads and Solaris threads functions. When a comparable interface is not available either in POSIX pthreads or Solaris threads, a hyphen (-) appears in the column.  

Functions Related to Creation

POSIXSolaris
pthread_create()thr_create()
pthread_attr_init()
pthread_attr_setdetachstate()
pthread_attr_getdetachstate()
pthread_attr_setinheritsched()
pthread_attr_getinheritsched()
pthread_attr_setschedparam()
pthread_attr_getschedparam()
pthread_attr_setschedpolicy()
pthread_attr_getschedpolicy()
pthread_attr_setscope()
pthread_attr_getscope()
pthread_attr_setstackaddr()
pthread_attr_getstackaddr()
pthread_attr_setstacksize()
pthread_attr_getstacksize()
pthread_attr_getguardsize()
pthread_attr_setguardsize()
pthread_attr_destroy()
-

 

Functions Related to Exit

POSIXSolaris
pthread_exit()thr_exit()
pthread_join()
pthread_detach()

 

Functions Related to Thread Specific Data

POSIXSolaris
pthread_key_create()thr_keycreate()
pthread_setspecific()
pthread_getspecific()
pthread_key_delete()

 

Functions Related to Signals

POSIXSolaris
pthread_sigmask()thr_sigsetmask()
pthread_kill()

 

Functions Related to IDs

POSIXSolaris
pthread_self()thr_self()
pthread_equal()
-

 

Functions Related to Scheduling

POSIXSolaris
-thr_yield()
-
-
pthread_setconcurrency()
pthread_getconcurrency()
pthread_setschedparam()
pthread_getschedparam()

 

Functions Related to Cancellation

POSIXSolaris
pthread_cancel()-
pthread_setcancelstate()
pthread_setcanceltype()
pthread_testcancel()
pthread_cleanup_pop()
pthread_cleanup_push()

 

Functions Related to Mutexes

POSIXSolaris
pthread_mutex_init()mutex_init()
pthread_mutexattr_init()
pthread_mutexattr_setpshared()
pthread_mutexattr_getpshared()
pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol()
pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol()
pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling()
pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling()
pthread_mutexattr_settype()
pthread_mutexattr_gettype()
pthread_mutexattr_setrobust_np()
pthread_mutexattr_getrobust_np()
pthread_mutexattr_destroy()
pthread_mutex_setprioceiling()
pthread_mutex_getprioceiling()
pthread_mutex_lock()
pthread_mutex_trylock()
pthread_mutex_unlock()
pthread_mutex_destroy()

 

Functions Related to Condition Variables

POSIXSolaris
pthread_cond_init()cond_init()
pthread_condattr_init()
pthread_condattr_setpshared()
pthread_condattr_getpshared()
pthread_condattr_destroy()
pthread_cond_wait()
pthread_cond_timedwait()
pthread_cond_signal()
pthread_cond_broadcast()
pthread_cond_destroy()

 

Functions Related to Reader/Writer Locking

POSIXSolaris
pthread_rwlock_init()rwlock_init()
pthread_rwlock_rdlock()
pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock()
pthread_rwlock_wrlock()
pthread_rwlock_trywrlock()
pthread_rwlock_unlock()
pthread_rwlock_destroy()
pthread_rwlockattr_init()
pthread_rwlockattr_destroy()
pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared()
pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared()

 

Functions Related to Semaphores

POSIXSolaris
sem_init()sema_init()
sem_open()
sem_close()
sem_wait()
sem_trywait()
sem_post()
sem_getvalue()
sem_unlink()
sem_destroy()

 

Functions Related to fork() Clean Up

POSIXSolaris
pthread_atfork()-

 

Functions Related to Limits

POSIXSolaris
pthread_once()-

 

Functions Related to Debugging

POSIXSolaris
-thr_stksegment()

 

LOCKING

 

Synchronization

Multithreaded behavior is asynchronous, and therefore, optimized for concurrent and parallel processing. As threads, always from within the same process and sometimes from multiple processes, share global data with each other, they are not guaranteed exclusive access to the shared data at any point in time. Securing mutually exclusive access to shared data requires synchronization among the threads. Both POSIX and Solaris implement four synchronization mechanisms: mutexes, condition variables, reader/writer locking (optimized frequent-read occasional-write mutex), and semaphores.

Synchronizing multiple threads diminishes their concurrency. The coarser the grain of synchronization, that is, the larger the block of code that is locked, the lesser the concurrency.  

MT fork()

If a threads program calls fork(2), it implicitly calls fork1(2), which replicates only the calling thread. Should there be any outstanding mutexes throughout the process, the application should call pthread_atfork(3C) to wait for and acquire those mutexes prior to calling fork().  

SCHEDULING

 

POSIX

Scheduling allocation size per thread is greater than one. POSIX supports the following three scheduling policies:

SCHED_OTHER

Timesharing (TS) scheduling policy. It is based on the timesharing scheduling class.

SCHED_FIFO

First-In-First-Out (FIFO) scheduling policy. Threads scheduled to this policy, if not pre-empted by a higher priority, will proceed until completion. Such threads are in real-time (RT) scheduling class. The calling process must have a effective user ID of 0.

SCHED_RR

Round-Robin scheduling policy. Threads scheduled to this policy, if not pre-empted by a higher priority, will execute for a time period determined by the system. Such threads are in real-time (RT) scheduling class and the calling process must have a effective user ID of 0.

 

Solaris

Only scheduling policy supported is SCHED_OTHER, which is timesharing, based on the TS scheduling class.  

ERRORS

In a multithreaded application, EINTR can be returned from blocking system calls when another thread calls forkall(2).  

USAGE

 

-mt compiler option

The -mt compiler option compiles and links for multithreaded code. It compiles source files with -D_REENTRANT and augments the set of support libraries properly.  

ATTRIBUTES

See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE

MT-LevelMT-Safe, Fork 1-Safe

 

SEE ALSO

crle(1), fork(2), libpthread(3LIB), librt(3LIB), libthread(3LIB), pthread_atfork(3C), pthread_create(3C), attributes(5), standards(5)


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
POSIX
Solaris
DESCRIPTION
Similarities
Differences
FUNCTION COMPARISON
Functions Related to Creation
Functions Related to Exit
Functions Related to Thread Specific Data
Functions Related to Signals
Functions Related to IDs
Functions Related to Scheduling
Functions Related to Cancellation
Functions Related to Mutexes
Functions Related to Condition Variables
Functions Related to Reader/Writer Locking
Functions Related to Semaphores
Functions Related to fork() Clean Up
Functions Related to Limits
Functions Related to Debugging
LOCKING
Synchronization
MT fork()
SCHEDULING
POSIX
Solaris
ERRORS
USAGE
-mt compiler option
ATTRIBUTES
SEE ALSO

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Time: 02:39:49 GMT, October 02, 2010